Nhlokonho

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Nhlokonho
ICD/CIM-10 A30 A30
ICD/CIM-9 030 030
OMIM 246300
DiseasesDB 8478
MedlinePlus 001347

Nhokonho, kambe lowu tiviwaka tanihi vuvabyi bya Hansen (HD), i bya nkarhi wo leha ntluleto wa byona wu vangiwa hi bakitheriya ya mayikhobakitheriyamu lepiraye na mayikhobakitheriyamu Lepiramathosisi.'[1][2] Emasungulweni, ntluleto a wu na swikombiso na ku va kona kusuka eka 5 ku ya eka malembe ya 20.[1] Swikombiso leswi vonakalaka swi katsa ku pfimba ka misiha , tiphayiphi ya moya nghohe na mahlo.[1] Leswi swi nga hetelela eka ku lahlekeriwa hi vuswikoti byo twa ku vava na swiphemu swa mahelo hi mhaka ya ku vaviseka kambe hi ku vuyelela kumbe ku tlulela hi mhaka ya mbanga leyi nga tekeriwangiki enhlokweni.[3] Ku tsana na ku vona switsongo swi nga va kona.[3]

Nhlokonho wu hangalaxiwa exikarhi ka vanhu. Wu va kona hi ku khohlola kumbe ku hlangana na swihalaki swo huma enhompfini ya munhu loyi a tluletiweke.[4] Nhlokonho wu va kona hi xitalo exikarhi ka lava hanyaka evusiwaneni na ku pfumeriwa leswaku wu hundziseriwa emahlweni hi swmatana leswi hefemuleriwaka ehandle.[3] Ku hambana na leswi ku pfumeriwaka eka swona, a wu tluleli.[3] Tinxaka timbrhi letikulu ta vuvabyi ti kumeka eka nhlayo ya tibakitheriya leti nga kona: pawusibasillari na basillarinyingi.[3] Tinxaka letimbirhi ti hambaniseka hi nhlayo ya nhlonge yo ka yi ngari kahle ,ku van a nhlonge feke, [3] Mfembo wu tiyisisiwa hi ku kumiwa ka bakisili ya asidifasiti eka bayopisi ya nghohe hi ku kambela DNA leyi tirhisaka angulo wo landzelelana wa polimerase. [3]

Nhlokonho wa tshunguleka hi vutshunguri lebyi vuriwaka vutshunguri bya Swidzidziharisinyingi (MDT).[1] Vutshunguri bya nhlokonho ya pausibasillari dapsone na rifampisini ku ringana 6 wa tin'hweti.[3] Vutshunguri bya nhlokonho ya bakisilarinyingi byi na rifampisini , dapsone na tlilofazimine ku ringana 12 wa tin'hweti.[3] Vutshunguri lebyi byi nyikiwa mahala hiNhlangano wa Rihanyu wa Misava[1] nhlayo ya swin'wanyana swilwanaswitsongwatsongwana swi nga tirhisiwa.[3] Misava hinkwayo hi 2012, timhangu ta vuvabyi lebyi nga tshungulekiki bya nhlokonho a ti ri 189, 000 ehansi ku suka eka 5.2 wa timiliyoni hi va1980.[1][5][6] Nhlayo ta timhangu tintshwa a yi ri 230,000.[1] Timhangu tintshwa ti humelela eka 16 wa matiko, laha India yi vikaka ku tlula hafu. [1][3] Kwalomu ka 200 wa timhangu ta vikiwa hi lembe eUnited States.[1] Kwalomu ka 200 ya timhangu ta vikiwa lembe na lembe eUnited Kingdom.[7]

Nhlokonho wu khomile vanhu ku ringana gidi ra malembe.[3] Vuvabyi byi kume vito leri kusuka eka rito ra Xilatini Lepra, leswi vulaka "magegetsu", loko rito " Vuvabyi bya Hansen" ri tshyiwile endzhaku ka Dokodela Gerhard Armauer Hansen.[3] Ku hambanisa vanhu hi ku va veka eka tikholoni ta nhlokonho swa ha humelela eka tindhawu to fana na India , [8] China, [9] na le Afrika.[10] Hambiswiritano, tikholoni tinyingi ti pfarile kusukela loko nhlokonho wu nga ha tluleri.[10] Xinyumiso ka vanhu a ku fambelana na nhlokonho eka matimu yotala, leswi yisaka emahlweni ku va xirhalanganyi eka ku vika hi wexe na ku tshunguriwa ka ha ri na nkarhi.[1] Van'wana va teka rito wanhlokonho ri ri xikhunguvanyiso, ku tsakeriwa marito " Vanhu lava tluletiweke nhlokonho." [11] Siku ra Misava ra Nhlokonho ri sunguriwe hi 1954 ku vitanisa ku lemukisa eka lava khumbekaka hi nhlokonho.[12]

Ku yelanisa[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 "Leprosy Fact sheet N°101". World Health Organization. Jan 2014. 
  2. "New Leprosy Bacterium: Scientists Use Genetic Fingerprint To Nail 'Killing Organism'". ScienceDaily. 2008-11-28. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 Suzuki K, Akama T, Kawashima A, Yoshihara A, Yotsu RR, Ishii N (February 2012). "Current status of leprosy: epidemiology, basic science and clinical perspectives.". The Journal of dermatology 39 (2): 121–9. PMID 21973237. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2011.01370.x. 
  4. "Hansen's Disease (Leprosy) Transmission". cdc.gov. April 29, 2013. Retrieved 28 February 2015. 
  5. "Global leprosy situation, 2012". Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 87 (34): 317–28. August 2012. PMID 22919737. 
  6. Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj (June 2011). "Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps.". The Lancet infectious diseases 11 (6): 464–70. PMID 21616456. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(11)70006-8. 
  7. "Hansen's Disease Data & Statistics". Health Resources and Services Administration. Retrieved 12 January 2015. 
  8. Walsh F (2007-03-31). "The hidden suffering of India's lepers". BBC News. 
  9. Lyn TE (2006-09-13). "Ignorance breeds leper colonies in China". Independat News & Media. Retrieved 2010-01-31. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 Byrne, Joseph P. (2008). Encyclopedia of pestilence, pandemics, and plagues. Westport, Conn.[u.a.]: Greenwood Press. p. 351. ISBN 9780313341021. 
  11. editors, Enrico Nunzi, Cesare Massone, (2012). Leprosy a practical guide. Milan: Springer. p. 326. ISBN 9788847023765. 
  12. McMenamin, Dorothy (2011). Leprosy and stigma in the South Pacific : a region-by-region history with first person accounts. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland. p. 17. ISBN 9780786463237.