Dzedzedze

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Dzedzedze
Xivungwana xa Plasmodium eka marha ya vusuna bya xisati
Xivungwana xa Plasmodium eka marha ya vusuna bya xisati
ICD/CIM-10 B54 B54
ICD/CIM-9 084 084
DiseasesDB 7728
MedlinePlus 000621

Dzedzedze i vuvabyi lebyi khomaka vanhu na swiharhi swinwana, byi vangiwaka hi tinsuna leti ngana xitsongwatsongwana xa dzedzedze. Dzedzedze wu vanga swikombiso swofana na kuhisa ka miri, muzototo, kukarhala, kuhlanta na kuvava ka nhloko. Loko wunyanyile ngopfu, wunga thlela wu vanga nhlonge ya xitshopana, kutiluma, khoma kumbe rifu. Swikombiso swi tala ku vonakala endzhaku ka masiku ya 10 kuya eka 15 yo lumiwa hi tinsuna. Loko byinga tshunguriwanga kahle, byithlela byi hambeta nakambe endzhaku ka tin'wheti to hlaya. Eka lava vahaku hulukaka mavabyi lawa, kuthlela valumiwa swi tisa swikombiso swo antswanyana. Kusihalala loku kuya ku hunguteka loko munhu anga ha lumiwi hitinsuna eka enkarhi woleha.[1]

Vuvabyi byi hundzisiwa hi nsuna ya xisati, naswona byi ngena hi marha ya nsuna maya engatini loku yiluma. Xitsongwatsongwana xiya exivindzini, laha xifikaka xikula no tswalana. Kuna minxaka ya nthlanu ya xitsongwatsongwana lexi vangaka vuvabyi lebyi naswona lebyi hundzelaka eka vanhu. Dzedzedze yihahluviwa hi ku kambela ngati, kumbe hi ku tirhisa murhi wa xisivela. Ndlela yo tirhisa DNA ku hlahluva vuvabyi lebyi, ya tiviwa kambe ayi tirhisiwi ngopfu hikuva ya durha.[2]

Vuvabyi lebyi byinga siveriwa hi ku tirhisa swilwisani na switsongwatsongwani, ku pfala miri wa wena hi swiambalo, tinete ta tinsuna , na ku susa mati lawa ya yimeke laha tinsuna titswalaka kona. Kuna mirhi yo tala yo sivela Dzedzedze eka vachaki lava yaka etindzhawini leti ngana xitsongwatsongwana lexi. Hakanyingi murhi wa  sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine wa tirhisiwa eka tincece kumbe vavasati lava tikeke kutlula tin'weti tinharhu, etindzhawini leti ngana xitsongwatsongwana lexi. Kuhava nthlavelo lowu tirhaka eka vuvabyi lebyi lowu tiviwaka. Vutshunguri lebyi khutaziwaka byi hlanganisa mpfangano wa mirhi yo tshungula ku katsa na artemisinin. Murhi wa vumbirhi wungava mefloquine, lumefantrine, kumbe sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine.[3] Quinine kuhlanganisa na doxycycline yinga tirhisiwa loko artemisinin yiherile. Kuna swibumabumelo leswaku vuvabyi lebyi byi tiyisisiwa eka muvabyi, kungasitirhisiwa mirhu eka tindzawu leti vuvabyi lebyi byi tolovelekeke, leswaku ku siveriwa ntolovelo wa mirhi. Switsongwatsongwana swin'wana swi sungule ku tolovela mirhi yotala, hixikombiso chloroquine yitsandzeka ku dlaya xivungu xa P. falciparum lexi vangaku dzedzedze etindzhawini to tala, artemisinin yikumana na thlonthlo wo hetisa switsongwatsongwana etindzhawini tin'wana ta ledzongeni bya vuxa wa Axiya.[4]

Vuvabyi lebyi byi hangalakile ematikweni yalexikarhi ya misava laha kuhisaka ngopfu. Matiko lawa mahlanganisa matiko yale Dzongeni bya Afrika, Axiya, na Amerika wale Dzongeni. Hi lembe ra 2015, akurina 296 wa timiliyoni ta swiviko swa vuvabyi lebyi emisaveni hinkwayo leswi vangeke kwalomu ka 731,000 wa mafu. Kwalomu ka 90% wa swiviko na mafu swi endleke e Afrika.[5] Swiviko swa vuvabyi lebyi swi sungule ku chika hikwalomu ka 37% kusukela hi lembe ra 2000 kuya eka 2015, kambe hi lembe ra 2014 kuve na kutlakuka loko kulu laha kuveke na swiviko swa kwalomu ka 198 wa timiliyoni swa vuvabyi lebyi.[4][1] Dzedzedze hakanyingi yi fambisana na vusiwana naswona yina nhlohlotelo eka nhluvuko wa ikhonomi hi kukongoma. E tikweni-nkulu ra Afrika, kulahleka kwalomu ka US$12 wa tibhiliyoni hikwalaho ka nstengo wa swa tarihanyo, ku tsandzeka ku tirha, na ku hunguteka ka vaendzi e tikweni.

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Caraballo H (2014). "Emergency department management of mosquito-borne illness: Malaria, dengue, and west nile virus". Emergency Medicine Practice 16 (5). 
  2. Nadjm B, Behrens RH (2012). "Malaria: An update for physicians". Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 26 (2). 
  3. Organization, World Health (2010). Guidelines for the treatment of malaria (2nd ed.). Geneva: World Health Organization. p. ix. ISBN 978-92-4-154792-5. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Malaria Fact sheet N°94". WHO. March 2014. Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 28 August 2014. 
  5. "Malaria Fact sheet N°94". WHO. Retrieved 2 February 2016.