Mukhuhlwana

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Mukhuhlwana
Xitsongwatsongwana xa Influenza, lexi ndlandlamuxiweke
Xitsongwatsongwana xa Influenza, lexi ndlandlamuxiweke
ICD/CIM-10J11.1 J11.1
ICD/CIM-9487 487
DiseasesDB6791
MedlinePlus000080

Mukhuhlwana, ivuvabyi lebyi tlulelanaka lebyi vangiwaka hi xitsongwatsongwana xa influenza. Swikombiso swa hambana hambana,[1] kambe swihlanganisa: kuhisa ka miri, nchuluko wa marhimila, kavava ka minkolo, kuvava ka misiha, kuvava ka nhloko, kukhohlola, na ku karhala ka miri. Swikombiso leswi swi sungula endzaku ka masiku mambirhi yo tluleriwa naswona swingaha gonya kufikela ku hela vhiki. Kukhohlola kona kunga ha gonya maviki mabirhi ni kutlula. Eka vana swikombiso swi katsa nsululwana na ku hlanta.[2] Mavabyi man'wana lama nyanyisiwaka hi mukhuhlwana mahlanganisa Nyumoniya, Mavabyi ya kupfaleka ka tinhompfu, Vuvabyi bya Xifuva kumbe vuvabyi bya mbilu.[1][3]

Kuna minxaka yinharhu ya xitsongwatsongwana kunga Muxaka wa A, B, na muxaka wa C.[3] Hakanyingi, xitsongwatsongwana lexi xi hangalaka na moya loko munhu a khohlola kumbe ku etshemula. Leswi swi endleka eka mangwa wutsongo.[4] Xitsongwatsongwana lexi xinga thlela xi hangalasiwa hi ku khumba swilo leswi tluleriweke ivi ukhumba nomo kumbe matihlo.[1][4] Munhu anga hangalasa xitsongwatsongwana lexi nahambi loko swikombiso swinga si humelela. Xitsongwantsongwana lexi xinga tiyisekisiwa hi ku kambela nkolo, xikhohlola, kumbe tinhompfu. Kuna minhlahluvo yo hambana hambana ya xihantla, kambe ndlela leyi tiyisekeke ya hlahluva vuvabyi lebyi ikutirhisa xikambelo xa polymerase lexi paluxaka xitsongwatsongwana lexi hi ku komba RNA yaxona.[3]

Kuhlamba mavoko, nkarhi ni nkarhi swi hunguta ntlulelo wa xitsongwatsongwana tani hileswi xisibhi xi dlayaka xitsongwatsongwana lexi.[5] Ku ambala lapi leyi savaka tinhompfu na nomo, naswona swa pfuna. Nthlavelo wa mukhuhlwana lembe na lembe wa bumabumeriwa hi nhlangano wa ta rihanyo wa misava. Nthlavelo lowu hakanyingi wa tirha eka minxaka yinharhu kumbe mune ya xitsongwatsongwana xa mukhuhlwana.  Hambiswiritano, awu bumabumeriwi eka vanhu lavangana rihanyo lerinene, naswona ku hava mpfuno eka vanhu lava ngana mavabyi man'wana yo yelana.[6]

Mukhuhlwana wa hangalaka lembe na lembe, naswona wu vangela kwalomu ka nthlanu wa timiliyoni ta swiviko ku hlanganisa na 250,000 kya eka 500,000 wa mafu.[7] En'walungwinin na ledzongeni ra misava, kuhangalaka ka mukhuhlwana ku endleka hi nguva ya xixika. Vana na vanhu lava pfumalaka rihanyo lerinene, hivona lava talaka kufa hikwalaho ka vuvabyi lebyi. Eka malembe xidzana ya vu 20, kuve na mintungu yinharhu ya mukhuhlwana: Mukhuhlwana wa Xipaniya hi 1918 (~50 wa timiliyoni ta mafu), Mukhuhlwana wa Axiya hi 1957 (Timiliyoni timbirhi ta mafu), na Mukhuhlwana wa Hong Kong hi 1968 (Miliyoni yin'we ya mafu).[8] Nhlangano wa swa Rihanyo wa matiko, wu tivise ntungu wa Mukhuhlwana wa A/H1N1 hi Khotavuxika bya 2009.[9] Mukhuhlwana wunga tlulela swiharhi swin'wana, kuhlanganisa na tinguluve, tihanci na tinyenyana.[10]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Key Facts about Influenza (Flu) & Flu Vaccine". cdc.gov. 9 September 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  2. Duben-Engelkirk, Paul G. Engelkirk, Janet (2011). Burton's microbiology for the health sciences (9th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 314. ISBN 9781605476735. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Longo, Dan L. (2012). "187: Influenza". Harrison's principles of internal medicine. (18th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 9780071748896. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Brankston G, Gitterman L, Hirji Z, Lemieux C, Gardam M (April 2007). "Transmission of influenza A in human beings". Lancet Infect Dis 7 (4): 257–65. PMID 17376383. doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(07)70029-4. 
  5. Jefferson T, Del Mar CB, Dooley L, etal (2011). "Physical interventions to interrupt or reduce the spread of respiratory viruses". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (7): CD006207. PMID 21735402. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006207.pub4. 
  6. Ebell, MH; Call, M; Shinholser, J (April 2013). "Effectiveness of oseltamivir in adults: a meta-analysis of published and unpublished clinical trials.". Family practice 30 (2): 125–33. PMID 22997224. doi:10.1093/fampra/cms059. 
  7. "Influenza (Seasonal) Fact sheet N°211". who.int. March 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2014. 
  8. "Ten things you need to know about pandemic influenza". World Health Organization. 14 October 2005. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2009. 
  9. World Health Organization. World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_pandemic_phase6_20090611/en/index.html
  10. Palmer, S. R. (2011). Oxford textbook of zoonoses : biology, clinical practice, and public health control (2. ed.). Oxford u.a.: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 332. ISBN 9780198570028.