HIV/AIDS

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
HIV/AIDS
Xilapani xo tshuka imfungo wo seketela vanhu lava hankyaka na vuvabyi bya HIV/AIDS.[1]
Xilapani xo tshuka imfungo wo seketela vanhu lava hankyaka na vuvabyi bya HIV/AIDS.[1]
ICD/CIM-10 B20 B20
ICD/CIM-9 042043044 042043044
DiseasesDB 5938
MedlinePlus 000594

HIV/AIDS i nxaxamelo wa swikombiso swa vuvabyi lebyi vangiwaka hi xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV.[2][3][4] Endzhaku ko tluleriwa, munhu anga vona angarina swikombiso, kumbe avona swikombiso swo fana na swa vuvabyu bya mukhuhlwana. Hakanyingi nkarhi wo tluleriwa, wu landzela hi nkarhi woleha kuri hava swikombiso swa vuvabyi.[5] Loko vuvabyi byi karhi byi kula, byi kavanyeta masocha ya miri, naswona byi kurisa marhengu yo hlaseriwa hi mavabyi man'wana lama fanaka na vuvabyi bya xifuva (TB), swirhangana na marhumba, kukatsa na man'wana mavabyi lama tsongo. Swikombiso leswi swo hetelela swivuriwa vuvabyi bya AIDS. Xiyenge lexi xa vuvabyi xifambelana na ku ondza emirini.

Xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV hakanyingi xitlulelana loko vanhu va hlanganela timhaka ta masangu vanga tirirhisi swisirheleri, kumbe ku cheriwa ngati leyi ngana xitsongwatsongwana lexi, kumbe ku tirhisa nayithi leyi ngana xitsongwatsongwana lexi, kumbe kutluletiwa ka nyimba hi manana loyi atikeke, kuhlanganisa na kuveleka kumbe ku mamisa.[6] Swilo swo fana na marha kumbe mihloti ya munhu aswi tluleti xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV.[7] Tindlela to sivela vuvabyi lebyi tihlanganisa kuhlanganela masangu loku sirhelelekeke, kunga tirhisi tinayithi ta swarihanyo na van'wana, kutshungula lava tluletiweke, na ku yimba ka vaxinuna.[8] Vuvabyi eka vana byi nga siveriwa hi ku nyika manana na n'wana mirhi ya vuvabyi lebyi.[8] Kuhava nthlavelo kumbe nthsungulo wa vuvabyi lebyi, hambi swiritano kuna mirhi leyi kotaka ku antswisa swikombiso swa vuvabyi lebyi, naswona yi endla leswaku munhu ahanya vutomi byo antswa.[5][9] Kububumabumeriwa leswaku vanhu va sungula kudya mirhi endzhaku ka ku tiyisisa leswaku vana vuvabyi lebyi.[10] Handle ka mirhi ya vutshunguri, vanhu lava tluleriweke hixitalo vahanya kwalomu ka hansi ka malembe ya khume-n'we.[11]

Hi lembe ra 2016 akuri na kwalomu ka 36.7 wa timiliyoni ta vanhu lava hanyaka na xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV naswona kulove kwalomu ka 1 wa timiliyoni.[12] Xitalo xa vanhu lava ava kumeka e ndzongeni ra tiko-nkulu wa Afrika.[8] Kusukela loko vuvabyi lebyi byi tiviwa kuta fika eka lembe ra 2014,  AIDS yi vangele kwalomu ka mafu ya 39 wa timiliyoni emisaveni hinkwayo.[13] HIV/AIDS yi voniwa tanihi ntungu - kunga vuvabyi lebyi vaka e tindzhawini to tala naswona byi yaka byi kula.[14] Ku ehleketwa leswaku xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV xingava xi tumbulukile evuxeni byale xikarhi ka tiko-nkulu ra Afrika eka malembe-xidzana ya vu 19 na 20.[15] AIDS yi tiyisiwile ro sungula hi Ndzawulo ya vulawuri na vusirheleri bya mavabyi (CDC) yale Amerikha hi lembe ra 1981, kasi xivangelo xa vuvabyi lebyi - xitsongwatsongwana xa HIV xitiyisiwile eka malembe lama landzeleke.[16]

HIV/AIDS yi vange nsusumeto wukulu eka nhlangano wavanhu, tanihi hi vuvyi byo kariha na xivangelo xa xihlahu-hlawu.[17] Vuvabyi lebyi byi thlela byi vangela ntshikelelo eka timhaka ta ikhonomi ya misava.[17] Kuna mavonelo yo tala lama hoxekeke mayelana na vuvabyi lebyi, kufana na leswaku vuvabyi lebyi byinga tlulelana hi ku khumba munhu kunene.[18] Vuvabyi lebyi byi vange minjhekanjhekisano ya vukhongeri kuhlanganisa na xiboho xa Vukhongeri bya vu Katolika byo ala ku seketela kutirhisiwa ka ti khondhomu eku sirheleleni vuvabyi lebyi.[19] Byi kokele kutekeriwa enhlokweni hi tindzawulo ta vutshunguri na Tipoliki ta misava, kuhlanganisa na ku seketeriwa hi timali ka migingiriko yo lwisana na byona kusukela loko byi hlavuteriwa hi malembe ya va 1980.[20]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. "World AIDS Day". World Health Organization. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  2. Sepkowitz KA (June 2001). "AIDS—the first 20 years". N. Engl. J. Med. 344 (23): 1764–72. PMID 11396444. doi:10.1056/NEJM200106073442306. 
  3. editors, Alexander Krämer, Mirjam Kretzschmar, Klaus Krickeberg, (2010). Modern infectious disease epidemiology concepts, methods, mathematical models, and public health (Online-Ausg. ed.). New York: Springer. p. 88. ISBN 9780387938356. 
  4. Wilhelm Kirch (2008). Encyclopedia of public health. New York: Springer. pp. 676–677. ISBN 9781402056130. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 "About HIV/AIDS". CDC. December 6, 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016. 
  6. Markowitz, edited by William N. Rom ; associate editor, Steven B. (2007). Environmental and occupational medicine (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 745. ISBN 978-0-7817-6299-1. 
  7. HIV and Its Transmission-Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-2003
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 "HIV/AIDS Fact sheet N°360". WHO. November 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016. 
  9. UNAIDS (May 18, 2012). "The quest for an HIV vaccine". 
  10. Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV.. WHO. 2015. p. 13. ISBN 9789241509565. 
  11. UNAIDS, WHO (December 2007). "2007 AIDS epidemic update" (PDF). Archived from the original on May 27, 2008. Retrieved March 12, 2008. 
  12. "Fact sheet - Latest statistics on the status of the AIDS epidemic | UNAIDS". www.unaids.org. Retrieved 21 July 2017. 
  13. "Basic Statistics". CDC. November 3, 2015. Retrieved 11 February 2016. 
  14. Kallings LO (2008). "The first postmodern pandemic: 25 years of HIV/AIDS". Journal of Internal Medicine 263 (3): 218–43. PMID 18205765. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2796.2007.01910.x. 
  15. Sharp, PM; Hahn, BH (September 2011). "Origins of HIV and the AIDS Pandemic". Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine 1 (1): a006841. PMC 3234451. PMID 22229120. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a006841. 
  16. Gallo RC (2006). "A reflection on HIV/AIDS research after 25 years". Retrovirology 3 (1): 72. PMC 1629027. PMID 17054781. doi:10.1186/1742-4690-3-72. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 The impact of AIDS on people and societies - UNAIDS - 2006
  18. "Myth Busters". Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  19. McCullom, Rob (26 Feb 2013). "An African Pope Won't Change the Vatican's Views on Condoms and AIDS previousnext An African Pope Won't Change the Vatican's Views on Condoms and AIDS". The Atlantic. Retrieved 14 February 2016. 
  20. Harden, Victoria Angela (2012). AIDS at 30: A History. Potomac Books Inc. p. 324. ISBN 1-59797-294-0.