Daniel Cornel Marivate

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Daniel Cornel Marivate
Daniel Marivate.png
Vutomi
Ndzhawu yovelekiwa Valdezia, Nyenyenyani 18, 1897
Tiko ra vutshami Afrika-Dzonga
Ririmi rantumbuluko Xitsonga
Ndzhawu yolova Nhlangula 30, 1989
Ndyangu
Nghamu Bertha Marivate
N'wana/Vana
Education
Uleteriwe e Xitichi xavurhumiwa xa Valdezia
Tindzimi leti a a titiva, kutsala na kuvulavula Xitsonga
Xinghezi
Ntirho
Ntirho Mufundhisi, Thicara, Mutsari, Nqambi ya Vunanga nakambe Muhundzuluxeri
Muthori Xitichi xavurhumiwa xa Valdezia
Gazankulu
Evangelical Presbyterian Church in South Africa
Xirho xa nhlangano wa 1973 Gazankulu legislative election

Daniel Cornel Marivate (Kumbe D.C Marivate) (18 Nyenyenyani 1897[1]† 30 Nhlangula 1989 ),[2][3][4] a kuri mufundhisi, mufambisi wa khwayere, muqambhi wa vunanga, xirho xa mfumo wa Gazankulu naswona a thlela a tiveka ngopfu tani hi mutsari wa novhele yo sungula ya ririmi ra Xitsonga (leyi gandlisiweke hi Swiss Mission press eJoni), Sasavona, hi lembe ra 1938. Marivate loyi a dyondzeke eValdezia, athlela aya hetisela tidyondzo tale henhla eLemana Instute, ukorhokele ririmi raXitsonga swonghasi, kuhlanganisa na kuqambha vunanga na swiphato, a thlela a tsala no hundzuluxela matsalwa ya Xitsonga, ku fikela loko ata hundza emisaveni hi lembe ra 1989.

Xikolo xa DC Marivate Junior Secondary School eSoshanguve, Afrika Dzonga, kuhlanganisa na patu leri kumekaka e Saulville, ePitori, swi thyiwe hi vito ra yena

Tavutomi byakwe[Lulamisa | edit source]

Malembe yosungula na tidyondzo: 1904–1931[Lulamisa | edit source]

Marivate i n’wana wo sungula wa Cornel Maxangete Maringa na Makhanani Annah Ximambana naswona u velekiwe eximutanini xa Valdezia hi lembe ra 1897.[4] Marivate ukulele athlela anghena xikolo eValdezia primary school (lexi akiweke hi lembe ra 1888) ekusuhi na Louis Trichardt eNorthern Transvaal (laha namunthla kunga xifundzha xa Limpopo) hi lembe ra 1904. Ximutanini xa Valdezia xisimekiwe hi lembe ra 1875 hi Varhumiwa va Vukhongeri bya vu Phresbethari, naswona vutomi bya ximutana lexi abyi kongomisiwa no hlohloteriwa hi ripfumelo ra vukreste. Marivate uhetile tidyondzo takwe ta xikolo xale hansi hi lembe ra 1908. Kusukela kona, u thlele aya dyondza vuvatli, kuhlayisa swirhapa, Xinghezi na Tidyondzo ta tinhlayo, ari karhi a leteriwa hi Mufundhisi Paul Rosset, kona kwale xitichini xa kereke eValdezia exikarhi ka malembe ya 1909 kuya eka 1912.[5]

Kusukela hi khotavuxika bya lembe ra 1912 kuya eka xixika xa 1915, Marivate unghenele athlela a hetisa tidyondzo tavuthicara eLemana Training Institute. Kusuka kona uyile a ya dyondzisa exikolweni xa Manabele, endzhaku ka tinwhetinyana athoriwa kuya sungula xikolo lexintshwa e Mambedi, ekusuhi na ximutana xa Valdezia. Xikolo lexi xikote kukula swonghasi endzeni ka malembe ya mune, laha xiheleleke xikuma mathicara mambirhi ku engetela eka Marivate. Vana vaxikolo na mathicara, vapfunetanile ku bhaka switina leswaku va aka tiyindlu to dyondzisela eka tona.

Varhumiwa na vakongomisi va xikolo na Kereke eximutanini lexi, ava tiyisisa leswaku vaaka tiko vale Valdezia vahanya hikuya hi vutomi bya vukreste, naswona ava aleriwa kutihlanganisa na vaaka tiko vavahedeni (Kumbe lava avangari vakhongeri). Hilembe ra 1915, Marivate loyi a ari thicara wa xikolo xa Valdeziya, xikan'we na thicara un'wana wa muntima, vatikume va tsemiwile eka kereke ya ximutana, kuringana tin'wheti tinharhu, hikwalaho kaleswi vayeke exivaleni xamuganga kuya hlalelaa ncino wamakhwaya.[6]

Hilembe ra 1924, Marivate uyisile tidyondzo takwe tavuthicara emahlweni loko ata nghenela xikolo xa Lovedale, laha a kumeke xitifiketi-tsongo xa vuthicara hi lembe ra 1925. Kusuka kona uvekiwe tani hi nhloko ya xikolo xa Valdezia hi lembe ra 1926, naswona u tirhile kona kufikela eka lembe ra1929. Marivate uthlele a thlelela exikolweni xa Lovedale, laha a hetiseke tidyondzo takwe tavuthicara, hinkarhi wolowo uthlele a hetisa tidyondzo takwe ta vuqambhi bya vunanga na xikolo xa London Music College, athlela arhwexiwa Diploma yo tsala vunanga (tonic-solfa) exikarhi ka malembe ya 1930 na 1931.

Vutsari na maphepha-hungu: 1931–1937[Lulamisa | edit source]

"Muyuropa anga hluriwi hi mathlarhi kumbe hiswibhakela kambe hi kutirhisa tidyondzo... Loko ndziri etikweni-nkulu ra Yuropa, ndzivone vayuropa votala lava avari exiyimweni xale hansi eka mina hinhluvuko... Loko hina vantima hilava kufikelela mahanyele yalehenhla yavona, hifanela ku byarha vutihlamuleri byo tihluvukisa, hiti hlengeletela tidyondzo na mahanyele yohluvuka, hibasisa no sasekisa miti yahina leswaku switava nonohwela ku hi tekela ehansi".

Marivate, 1934

Marivate uve muhleri wa phephahungu ra muganga, ra The Valdezia Bulletin/Light (leri ri thyiweke "The light: Ku Vonakala ka Vatsonga"),[7] xikan'we na E.A. Tlakula na A.E. Mpapele. Marivate utirhise phepha-hungu leri kuyisa emahlweni xikongomela xo hluvukisa rixaka ra rikwavo, naswona a thlela a haxa mhungu ya muganga na tiko hiku angarha. Migandliso yo sungula ya phephahungu leri a yitsariwe hi voko, ivi kuya hinkarhi vasungula ku tirhisa michini yo tsala, kufikela laha rigandlisiweke. Marivate uthlele ava mutsari eka phephahungu ra xikolo xa Lemana, eka malembe yo sungula leswaku a titoloveta kutsala no hlela phephahungu.

Phephahungu lere ri gandlisiwe no haxiva kwalomu ka malembe ya nkombo kusukela hi lembe ra 1931 kuya eka 1937, naswona ari tsariwa hi ririmi ra Xinghezi na Xitsonga. Marivate utirhile tani hi muhleri na muhumelerisi wa phepha-hungu leri kusukela loko risimekiwa, kufikela loko rita yimisiwa[2]

Vukorhokeri eka African Boy Scouts: 1934–1956[Lulamisa | edit source]

Marivate u vitaniwe ku nghenela nhlangano wa African Boys Scouts, naswona a ya leteriwa eka vutshila bya ti Scoutse Gilwell Park, kusuhi na Chingford e dorobheni ra Landhani, hi lembe ra 1934. Loko ari kwalomo, kusungule nyimpi ya vumbirhi ya misava hi lembe ra 1939, leswi vangeleke leswaku machudeni ya ti Scouts, marhurheriwa kusuka e dorobheni ra Landhani kuya e Bridgewater, laha va takeke mayendzo ya siku na siku hi bhazi, kuya hetisisa tidyondzo ta vona e xidorobhaneni xa Taunton. Marivate u tirhisie nkarhi lowu ku endzela tindzawu ta matimu totala e tikweni ra Nghilandi, ku hlanganisa na tiko ra Furhwa na Switselandi.[3]

Hilembe rero ra 1939, utekile rendzo ro vuyela ekaya, ehenhla ka ntsikelelo wa nyimpi. Xikepe xa vona xi vhikavhike swikepe swo famba e hansi kalwandle ra Atlanthiki, kuringana mavhiki manharhu ku kondzo loko xita fika e Kapa, eku heteleni ka n'wheti ya hukuri. Hi lembe leri landzeleke ra 1940, uthoriwile hi va Scout South Africa, leswaku a letela no olorisa majaha ya Boy Scouts of South Africa, ya vantima, no tsarisa majaha mantshwa. Marivate u tirhe ntirho lowu hi ku tshembeka na ku tikarhata, kufikela loko a ta tshika ntirho hi Khotavuxika bya lembe ra 1959, loko ata nghenela tidyondzo ta vufundhisi.[3]

Vufundhisi na Bhibhele ya Xitsonga: 1956–1989[Lulamisa | edit source]

Marivate uvekiwe kuva mupfuni wa Mufundhisi Malale, xikan'we na Joshua Marule na Frank Hlaise.[kulaveka vumbhoni] Marivate a a tsakela ku nghenela tidyondzo ta vudokodela, naswona u tsarisile kudyondza ari ekaya, kambe uve a sindziseka ku tshika tidyondzo takwe, loko mativula yakwe Charley a ta sungula tidyondzo takwe ta vudokodela e yunivhesithi ya Natala. Endzhaku ka xinkadyana, kereke ya Swiss Mission yi n'wirhambe ku nghenela tidyondzo ta vufundhisi ta mahala. Uleteriwile eka swa vufundhisi ku ringana malembe ya nthlanu loko ata rhwexiwa vufundhisi hi lembe ra 1956. Endzhaku ka swona, usungule ku rhangela kereke ya Swiss Mission e Atteridgeville (e Pitori), laha a rhangeleke kereke ku hlanganisa na mavandla ya 29 ya kereke.[3]

Marivate u rhambiwe hi nhlangano ya Bhibhele ya laha Afrika Dzonga (Bible SocietySouth Africa) kuva xiyenge xa komiti yo hundzuluxa Bhibhele ya Xitsonga. Komiti leyi a yi rhangeriwa hi Mufundhisi Théophile Robert Schneider loyi a tirheke exikarhi ka vatsonga kwalomu ka 40 wa malembe. Van'wana lava va rhambiweke a kuri Mufundhisi Elias F.C. Mashava wa Kereke ya Swiss Mission, Mukhacani Jackson Makhuvele; Manana Ann K Manyike na Phurofesa Charlotte P.N. Nkondo.[7] Komiti yi hetile ku hundzuluxela hi lembe ra 1976, ivi Bhibhele yi kandziyisiwe ximfumo hi lembe ra 1989 e hansi ka nhlokomhaka "BIBELE Mahungu Lamanene".[kulaveka vumbhoni]

Vukati na Vana[Lulamisa | edit source]

Marivate a a tekane na Bertha Marivate naswona a va katekisiwe hi majaha ya ntsevu na ntombhi yin'we[6] kunga:

  1. Cornelius Tennyson Daniel Marivate (Mativula) – Phurofesa wa tidyondzo ta ririmi e yunivhesithi ya Afrika Dzonga (1927),
  2. Russel MarivateDokodela (1930),
  3. Cecil Roy MarivateThicara (1933),
  4. Martin MarivateDokodela (1934),
  5. Maseve Richard MarivateThicara wa tidyondzo ta Tinhlayo, loyi a thlomiweke tinsiva to hlaya (1936),
  6. Desiree N'wamhamba MarivateNese,
  7. Charles MarivateDokodela (1942),

Vuqambhi bya vunanga[Lulamisa | edit source]

Marivate a a thlela ava muqambhi wa vunanga bya Xitsonga, a thlela a tsala vunanga bya makhwaya, hiririm ra Xitsonga. Leswi aswiri xihlamariso lexi kulu hi nkarhi wolowo, naswona hi lembe ra 1931, khampani ya Singer Gramophone ya vunanga ya Eric Gallo yi rhumele Marivate na ntlawa wakwe e dorobheni ra Landhani, leswaku vaya rhekhoda vunanga bya Xitsonga na XiVhenda.[6][5]

Nxaxamelo wa vunanga lebyi abyi qambheke:

  • Xinkanka (N'wheti ya september nineteenthirtynine)[8][9] – 1939: Department of Education, South Africa.
  • Tinsimbi ta Valungu[10] – 1951: International Library of African Music. Muqambhi athlela a yimbelela.
  • Serululu[11] – 1951: International Library of African Music. Muqambhi athlela a yimbelela.
  • Ben, Ben, Ben[12] – 1954: International Library of African Music. Muqambhi athlela a yimbelela.
  • Mbuti ya Shidzwele[13] – 1968–1969: Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville.
  • Xidzedze[13] – 1968–1969: Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville.
  • Kaya[13] – 1968–1969: Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville.
  • Phelindhaba[13] – 1968–1969: Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville.
  • Homu yo basa[13] – 1968–1969: Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville.
  • Yingisani[13] – 1968–1969: Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville.
  • Vamakweru![13] – 1968–1969: Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville.
  • Xinyenyani[13] – 1968–1969: Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville.

Vutsari na vuhundzuluxi[Lulamisa | edit source]

"Xitsonga xa ka hina xi nadziha ngopfu, naswona xi na marito lawa yo tala ngopfu ni mavulavulele ya xilo xin'we hi tindlela leto tala ngopfu.

N'wina hinkwenu lava nga ta tsala tibuku endzhaku ka mina ringetani ku kuma mavulavulele ya Xitsonga ku nga ri ku tsala hi miehleketo ya xilungu, swi bihisa ririmi ra hina na ku pingula eka lava va switwaka."

Marivate, Valdezia, 5th Nyenyenyani 1938

Marivate tsarile no hundzuluxa tibuku to hlaya ta xitsonga, kuhlanganisa na leti landzelaka.

  • Sasavona. 1938. Johannesburg: Swiss Mission in South Africa.
  • David Livingstone. 1941. Johannesburg: Swiss Mission in South Africa.
  • Xiloyiloyi. 1984. Johannesburg: Sasavona.
  • Xitsonga Hymnary, Tinsimu ta Vakriste. 1989. 8th edition, revised. Braamfontein Sasavona Publishers.
  • Xitsonga Bible translation. 1989. Cape Town: The Bible Society of South Africa (Xirho xa ntlawa wa vahundzuluxi)

Vurhangeri na ku tinyiketela[Lulamisa | edit source]

Marivate akuri munhu wotinyiketela naswona ari murhangeri eka swiyenge swotala evutomini byakwe. Utinyiketele naswona akorhokela swivangelo leswi landzelaka:

  • Mutshama-xitulu wa rhavi ra n'walungu ra nhlangano wa mathicara rale Zoutpansberg, kutlula malembe ya khume.
  • Mukamberi wa nhlangano ya mathicara ya vantima yale Transvaal, kwalomu ka malembe mambirhi, athlela ava xandla xa murhangeri wa nhlangano leyi, kwalomu ka lembe.
  • Mutshama-xitulu wa komiti ya swikolo swa Atteridgeville, athlela ava xandla xa mutshama-xitulu xa bhodo ya ya swikolo swa Atteridhgeville.
  • Xandla xa mulanguteri wa vuleteri bya Scout Masters, naswona ava muleteri wa Atteridgeville Scout Troop.

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Sunday at home programme during autumn 1931: Application for Passport" - Page 7 - Marivate Papers Repository (UNISA). Retrieved 02 November 2018
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Unsettling Whiteness" (2014) Lucy Michael and Samantha Schulz - Inter-Disciplinary Press. Retrieved 31 October 2018
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Huskisson, Y (1992). Black Composers of Southern Africa. uman Sciences Research Council. p. 17 & 66. ISBN 0796912521. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Ubisi, L.L (2013). Nkucetelo wa vukriste eku vumbeni ka swimunhuhatwa swa vavasati eka matsakwa ya Sasavona hi D.C. MARIVATE na Rixile hi S.B. NXUMALO) (Thesis). University of Limpopo. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Huskisson, Y (1969). The Bantu composers of Southern Africa. South African Broadcasting Corp. p. 101-103. ISBN 0869651218. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Chabalala Masumbe, BM. (2002). The Swiss Missionaries' management of Social transformation in SOuth Africa (1873-1976) (Thesis). UNISA. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 Maluleke, MJ. (2017). The role of Bible translation in enhancing Xitsonga cultural identity (Thesis). University of the Free State. 
  8. Xinkanka - Musical notes (1939)- Marivate D.C
  9. "Xinkanka (A cheetah)" - Translation (1939) -DC Marivate. Retrieved 02 November 2018
  10. "Tinsimbi ta Valungu" (1951) song recording - Composer: DC Mativate - South African Music Archive Project. Retrieved 02 November 2018
  11. "Serululu" (1951) song recording - Composer: DC Mativate - South African Music Archive Project. Retrieved 02 November 2018
  12. "Ben, Ben, Ben" (1954) song recording - Composer: DC Mativate - South African Music Archive Project. Retrieved 02 November 2018
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 "Tsonga Presbyterian Church Attridgeville : record of activities 1968-1969" (1968) Songs composition notes - Composer: DC Mativate - Marivate Papers Repository (UNISA). Retrieved 02 November 2018