Kusuka e Wikipedia
Xifaniso xa Xivala ekusuhi na Bulawayo hi lembe xidzana ra vu 19.
Xifaniso xa ku akiwa ka Xivala (Mawuwani 1853, X, p.78)[1]

Xivala i xiakiwa xo hlayisa swifuwo swa muti wa Vatsonga, hambi leswi valavisisi lava fikeke etikweni-nkulu ra Afrika a va hlamusela muti kuri xivala. Xivala a xi akiwa hi ndlela yo sirhelela swifuwo hi ku tirhisa tinhonga to bumbula na marhavi ya mintwa ku rhendzela xivala.[2][3][4]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. "Building an African Kraal". The Wesleyan Juvenile Offering: A Miscellany of Missionary Information for Young Persons (Wesleyan Missionary Society) X: 78. July 1853. Retrieved 29 February 2016. 
  2. {{in 1894 Theal notes that the word kraal "...is also used to signify a collection of either Hottentot or Bantu Huts...", in 1910 Kidd describes a kraal as "The natives lives in round huts, which are build of wattle and daub. A kraal consists of a number of these huts grouped in a circle or crescent; the cattle-kraal, which is usually a large circular enclosure made of thorn-bush branches, being places in the centre of the circle, or else on the cord of the crescent or horseshoe." In 1913 Pettman notes that kraal may refer to "Any native village or collection of huts"
  3. Kidd, Dudley (1910). South Africa. London: A. and C. Black. 
  4. Pettman, Charles (1913). Africanderisms; a glossary of South African colloquial words and phrases and of place and other names. London, New York: Longmans, Green and co. p. 280.