Xitsonga

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Tsonga
Rivulavuriwa e: Flag of Muzambhiki Mozambique
Flag of Afrika-Dzonga Afrika-Dzonga
Flag of Swaziland Swaziland
Flag of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe 
Region: Limpopo, Mpumalanga
Ntsengo wa Lavavulavulaka: 3,275,105
Muti wa ririmi: Niger-Congo
 Tsonga
 
Official status
Ririmi-ximfumo e: Flag of Afrika-Dzonga Afrika-Dzonga
Rilanguteriwa hi: no official regulation
Tikhodi ta ririmi
ISO 639-1: ts
ISO 639-2: tso
ISO 639-3: tso

Xitsonga (Tsonga, Xitonga (Thonga), Xironga (Rhonga)) - I ririmi ra Vatsonga leri vulavuriwaka edzongeni wa tiko ra Mozambique, en´walungwini na le vuxeni bya tiko ra Afrika-Dzonga, eSwazini xikan´we na le ka xiphemu xin´wana xa tiko ra Zimbabwe.

Matimu ya Ririmi[Lulamisa | edit source]

Junod (1977:47) u hlamusela leswaku hi malembe ya va 1500 ku fika 1600 eN’walungwini wa Mozambiki ku sukela eSaint Lucia ni le tikweni hinkwaro, a ku vulavuriwa ririmi leri ku nga huma XiTsonga xa hina eka rona, hi marhavi lamanyingi ya xona. Matimu ya ririmi leri ya komba leswaku ririmi leri namuntlha hi ri tivaka tani hi "Xitsonga" khale a ri tiveka hi vito ra "Tonga" kumbe "Thonga", leswi na Junod a nga swi seketela eka vulavisisi bya yena loko a tsala hi xinghezi a ku[1]:

"My conclusion is then that the Thonga language was already-spoken by the primitive occupants of the country more than 500 years ago and that, together with a certain number of customs, it formed the great bond which bound the Thonga clans together in past centuries.” ─ (Junod 1912, p. 33)

Vatsonga a va ri na mavulavulele yo hambana ku ya hi tindhawu leti a va tshama eka tona. Henri Junod (1977:38) u hlamusela leswaku tindzimi ta Vatsonga ti nga avanyisiwa hi tindzin’wana (dialects) leti landzelaka[2]:

  • XiCopi lexi a xi vulavuriwa hi vaCopi lava va tshamaka e kusuhi ni lwandle e Nyembani na le Xai-Xai.
  • Xihlengwe kumbe Xitshwa lexi a xi vulavuriwa ekusuhi na milambu ya Limpopo na Save eMozambiki na le Zimbabwe.
  • Xinhlanganu lexi a xi vulavuriwa eSwaziland, Mpumalanga, Kruger National Park, milambu ya Sabie na Nkomati eMozambiki.
  • Xirhonga lexi a xi vulavuriwa ekusuhi na milambu ya Sabie na Nkomati.
  • XiN’walungu lexi a xi vulavuriwa ekusuhi na milambu ya Limpopo na Olifants eMozambiki.
  • Xitshwa lexi a xi kumeka eInhambane eMozambiki.
  • XiXika lexi a xi vulavuriwa eN’walungu-vuxa bya nambu wa Nkomati.

Namuntlha Xitsonga xi vulavuriwa hi vanhu lavo tala eMozambiki, eAfrika-Dzonga ni le Zimbabwe. Mhaka yo biha hi leswaku ririmi ra Xitsonga ri le ku kuceteriweni hi tindzimi tin’wana. Milavisiso yi komba leswaku nkucetelo wa tindzimi wu humelela emisaveni hinkwayo na kona eka tinxaka to tala. Leswi swi vangiwa hikuva vanhu va hlangana na tinxaka tin’wana. Emisaveni hinkwayo a ti kona tinxaka ta vanhu leti nga hlanganiki na tinxaka tin’wana. Nkarhi wo tala vanhu va hlangana na vanhu van’wana va mindhavuko yo hambana hi ntsako kumbe hi nyimpi. Ku hlangana ka tinxaka to hambana hi ku tekana kumbe ku xaviselana nhundzu swi endla leswaku tindzimi ta vona ti kucetelana.

Ku hangalaka ka vanhu hi mbangu[Lulamisa | edit source]

Xitsonga xi vulavuriwa hi kwalomu ka 1,646,000 wa vanhu eswifundzenikulu swa Limpopo; Joni na Mpumalanga eAfrika-Dzonga, ku hlanganisa na kwalomu ka 1.5 wa timiliyoni ta vanhu e Mozambhiki, na 19,000 wa vanhu eSwaziland. Ku ni 100,000 wa vanhu lava va vulavulaka Xitsonga (kumbe rin'we ra marhavi ya kona) eZimbabwe.

Xiyimo-mfumo[Lulamisa | edit source]

Xitsonga i rin'wana ra tindzimiximfumo ta Afrika-Dzonga.

Marhavi ya ririmi/Tinxaka ta Ririmi leri[Lulamisa | edit source]

Marhavi ya ririmi ra Xitsonga ma vulavuriwa kuya fikela en'walungwini wa nambu wa Risavi eZimbabwe, ku hlanganisa na kuya fika eDzongeni ra KwaZulu-Natal. Hambi leswi marhavi lawa ma twisisanaka, ku ni ku hambana loku twalaka hi kuya hi vumbangu na nhlohlotelo wa vukoloni. Xitsonga xi ni maxaka ya le kusuhi ngopfu lawa ku nga: Xirhonga (Ronga), lexi vulavuriwaka eMaputo, Mozambiki; na Xitshwa (Tswa), lexi vulavuriwaka eNyembane, na Xihlengwe lexi kumekaka kuya eZimbabwe.

Marhavi lawa ma hambana hi mavulavulele. Xikombiso, eka Xitsonga xa le Afrika-Dzonga u nga ku: Xikwembu; EZimbabwe va ku: Chikwembu.

Marhavi lawa hinkwawo ma kume nhlohlotelo lowu nga ringaniki wa ririmi ra Xizulu naswona, eZimbabwe, hi ririmi ra Xindevele. Leswi swi hoxe marito lawa a ya nga ri kona eka Xitsonga xa khale.

Swikombiso swa marito lama lombiweke: ngqondo, gqoka, ricingo, qamba, Mugqivela... na swin'wana.

Nhlamuselo ya le handle[Lulamisa | edit source]

Swin'wana swa leswi hlawulekisaka ririmi ra Xitsonga hi leswi landzelaka:

  1. Mitolovelo
  2. Ndhavuko
  3. Matsalele ya ririmi
  4. Mahlayele ya ririmi
  5. Mfuwo wa ririmi kumbe rixaka/tinxaka
  6. Maendlele ya swilo
  • Junod, Henry (1912, 1927), The Life of a South African Tribe: The Social Life, Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Freres.
  • Junod, Henry (1977), Matimu Ya Vatsonga: 1498-1650, Braamfontein: Sasavona Publishers.