Xinghezi

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Xinghezi iririmi leri sunguleke ku vulavuriwa eNghilandhi naswona hirona ririmi leri vulavuriwaka ngopfu ematikweni ya misava.[1] Ririmi leri ri tshyiwe hi rixaka ra Va-Angles, rin'wana ra tinxaka takhale ta maJarimani, leri rhurheleke eBhrithaniya, endhzawini leyi thyiweke, Nghilandhi. Swiga ririmi swarona swihlohloteriwa ngopfu hi tindzimi tin'wana ta xiJarimani, ngopfu-ngopfu Xinirse, Xilatini na Xifurhwa.[2]

Ririmi ra Xinghezi ri akiwe endzeni ka malembe ya kutlula 1,400. Xinghezi xosungula, axivulavuriwa eka malembe-xidzana ya vunthlanu. Xinghezi xale xikarhi xisungule eka lembe-xidzana ravu khume-n'we, loko mavuthu ya Vanomanimata hlula tiko ra Nghilandi, leswi swilandzeriweke hi nhlohlotelo wa xifurhwa.[3] Xinghenzi lexilandzeleke xisungule hi lembe-xidzana ra vukhume-nthlanu, loko kuta sunguriwa kutirhisiwa ka michini yo gandlisa tibuku e dorobheni ra Landhani, ku gandlisiwa ka Bhibhele ya Hosi Yakobo, na masungulo ya ku ncinca lokukulu ka ririmi.[4]

Xinghezi xi hangalake na misava kusukela eka lembe-xidzana ra vukhume-nkombo kuya eka lembe-xidzana ramakume-mbirhi. Hikwalaho ka swihlovo swa manguva lawa swa mahungu na kuthlandluka ka Amerikha tanihi mfumo-nkulu wa misava, ririmi raXinghezi ri sungule kutirhisiwa tanihi ririmi-nkulu ra matiko yo tala ya misava naswona rithlela ritirhisiwa eka tidyondzo ta Sayenzi na ta nawu.[5]

Xinghezi iririmi ra vunharhu hivukulu emisaveni, kulandzela ririmi ra Xichayina na Xipanichi.[6] Hirona ririmi leri dyondzisiwaka ngopfu emisaveni naswona iririmi ximfumo ra matiko ya kwalomu ka makume-ntsevu. Kuna vanhu votala lava dyondzeke ririmi leri kutlula vanhu lavarimameke. Xinghezi iririmi leri vulavuriwaka ngopfu ematikweni ya Nghilandi, Amerikha, Khanada, Ostraliya, Ayilendi na Nyuzilendi, naswona rivulavuriwa ngopfu eswihlaleni swa Kharibhiya, tiko-nkulu ra Afrika na ra Axiya.[7] iririmi-ximfumo leri tirhisiwaka hi Nhlangano ya Matiko, Vumbano bya Yuropa na minhlangano yin'wana ya matiko ya misava. Ririmi leri rina swiga-ririmi na marito yo tsandza-vahlayi.[8][9]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Crystal, David (2003a). English as a Global Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-521-53032-3. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Lay summaryLibrary of Congress (sample) (4 February 2015). 
  2. Finkenstaedt, Thomas; Dieter Wolff (1973). Ordered profusion; studies in dictionaries and the English lexicon. C. Winter. ISBN 3-533-02253-6. 
  3. Crystal, David (2003a). English as a Global Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-521-53032-3. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Lay summaryLibrary of Congress (sample) (4 February 2015). 
  4. "How English evolved into a global language". BBC. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2015. 
  5. "The Routes of English". 1 August 2015. 
  6. "Summary by language size". Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 10 February 2015. 
  7. Crystal, David (2003a). English as a Global Language (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 108–109. ISBN 978-0-521-53032-3. Retrieved 4 February 2015. Lay summaryLibrary of Congress (sample) (4 February 2015). 
  8. "How many words are there in the English language?". Oxford Dictionaries Online. Oxford University Press. 2015. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  9. Algeo, John (1999). "Chapter 2:Vocabulary". In Romaine, Suzanne. Cambridge History of the English Language. IV: 1776–1997. Cambridge University Press. pp. 57–91. ISBN 978-0-521-26477-8. doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521264778.003.