Steve Biko

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Steve Biko
SteveBiko DaanWildschut.jpg
Vito leri heleleke: Bantu Stephen Biko
Siku Ro velekiwa: 18 N'wendzamhala 1946
Ndzhawu yo velekiwa: Ginsberg, Afrika Dzonga
A lova hi: 12 Ndzhati 1977
Ndzhawu yo lova: Pitori, Afrika Dzonga
Ntirho wakwe: Mulweri wa ntshuxeko
Nhlangano: SASO  – BPC
Nsati/Vasati: Ntsiki Mashalaba  · Mamphela Ramphele  · Lorrain Tabane
Vana: Nkosinathi  · Samora  · Lerato  · Hlumelo  · Motlatsi


Bantu Stephen Biko (18 N'wendzamhala 1946 – 12 Ndzhati 1977)[1] akuri mulweri wa nthsuxeko wa le Afrika Dzonga. A ari murhangeri wa nhlangano wa swa tipolitiki wa Black Conciousness Movement, lowu tivekeke hi malembe ya va 1960 na va 1970, naswona wu hlohlotela vu Afrika na vu Soxalizimi. Mihleketo ya yena yihlamuseriwe eka matsalwa ya yena lama kandziyisiweke hi ku tirhisa vito ra vutsari ra Frank Talk.

Biko ukulele mutini wa vusweti, e lokichini ra Ginsberg exifundzeni xa Vuxa bya Kapa. Hi lembe ra 1966, usungurile tidyondzo ta vuongori a Yunivhesithi ya Natala, laha a ngheneleke nhlangano wa machudeni wa (NUSAS).[2] Biko a a karhatiwa ngopfu hi kutala ka valungu endzeni ka nhlangano ya machudeni ya NUSAS, loko yiri karhi yilwisana na mfumo lowu a wu tshikelela vantima. A a pfumela leswaku hambileswi van'wana vavalungu avarina swikongomelo leswinene, kambe a va tsandzeka ku twisisa swiphiqo swa vantima na vutomi bya ntshikelelo, naswona leswi aswi endla va nga tirhisani kahle na machudeni man'wana. U ake vonelo raleswaku, vanhu vantima ava fanele kutilulamisa havoxe, leswaku vata papalata kutshikeleriwa hi valungu, hiswona leswi endleke leswaku a rhangela kusimekiwa ka nhlangano ya machudeni yinthswa ya SASO hi lembe ra 1968.[3] Nhlangano leyi ya SASO, ayi amukela vanhu va ntima ntsena, lava avahlanganisa makhaladi na va Indiya. Utikarhatile leswaku a hambanisa nhlangano wa yena na valungu lava avari namboyamelo wo lwela timfanelo ta vantima, hambi leswi a akanetana na ku venga valungu, naswona u akile vuxaka na vanghana va valungu votala. Nhlangano wa National Party, awu seketela kusimekiwa ka nhlangano wa SASO, tani hileswi ava vona wu hetisekisa xikongomelo xa vona xo hambanisa machudeni hi rixaka na nhlonge.

Biko na vanakulori vakwe va ake vonelo ra Kuxalamukisa Vantima (Black Conciousness), leri veke vonelo ra nawu wa SASO, hi kuya hi nhlohlotelo wa Frantz Fanon na nhlangano wa le Amerikha wa Matimba ya vuntima. Nhlangano wa yena wu hlohlotele no seketela tsima ro herisa mfumo wa xihlawu-hlawu no cinca Afrika Dzonga leswaku yi voyamela eka mintshuxeko ya vanhu na ikhonomi ya Vusoxalisi. Nhlangano lowu wu thlela wu lulamisa matsima ya miganga ya vantima (Black Community Programmes - BCPs) lyi a yi tshikelela ku antshwisiwa ka mahanyele ya vantima. Biko a a pfumela leswaku vanhu va vantima ava fanele ku tshumula kuti xixa no tivona vari nga ehansi ka tinxaka tin'wana, naswona vonelo leri uri kurise hi ku tirhisa xivulwa xandhuma lexinge "Vuntima byi Sasekile". Hilembe ra 1972, upfunile ku simeka nhlangano wa vanhu vantima wa tipolitiki wa BPC lwu kutazeke Nxalamuko wa Vantima.[4] Mfumo wa xihlawu-hlawu wusungule ku vona Biko tani hi muluthanyi naswona wun'wu sivela hi nawu, hilembe ra 1973, wu n'wi siveleke ku famba-famba na ku hlanganela swa tipolitiki. Hmabiswiritano uyile emahlweni a pfuneta nhlanagno wa yena ku simeka Kliniki na Khireche e Ginsberg laha aa siveriwe kona. Eka nkarhi lowu wa kusiveriwa, ukumile minxungeto ya xihundla, naswona uthlele a khomiwa makhambi yo hlaya hi ndzawulo ya vusirheleri ya mfumo. Endzhaku ko khomiwa hi maphorisa ya ndzawulo ya vusirheleri bya tiko, Biko u mbeyeteriwile hi maphorisa, laha aheteleke a lova. Kwalomu ka kutlula 20,000 wa vakhandli vanhlonge va tile eka ntirho wa rifu ra yena.[5][6]

Ndhuma ya Biko, yikurile endzhaku ka rifu rakwe, loko Buku ya vutomi byakwe leyi tsariweke hi munghana wakwe Donald Woods, yitirhisiwe ku endla filimi ya "Cry Freedom" hi lembe ra 1987.[7] Utirhisiwile eka vunanga na tinsimu to hlaya, kuhlanganisa na vupfapfarhuti byohlaya, kasi vun;winyi bya ntirho wakwe na mavonele yakwe eka swa tipolitiki swa ha lweriwa kufikela na sweswi. Mfumo wa xihlawu-hlawu wu lumbete Biko leswaku a a venga valungu naswona a thlela a ala ku xixima vaxisati, naku ringeta ku hoxa madzolonga eka makhaladi na va indiya. Hambiswiritano, Biko uhundzukile mfungo wa minhlangano leyi a yi lwisana na mfumo wa xihlawu-hlawu, naswona a voniwa tani hi "Tatana wa pfhumba ra ku Xalamuka ka vantima".[8][9]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Woods 1978, p. 49; Wilson 2012, p. 18; Hill 2015, p. xxi.
  2. Smit 1995, p. 18; Wilson 2012, p. 28.
  3. Woods 1978, p. 119; Wilson 2012, p. 36; Macqueen 2013, p. 367; Mangcu 2014, p. 169.
  4. Mangcu 2014.
  5. Woods 1978.
  6. Bernstein 1978, p. 5; Mangcu 2014, p. 262.
  7. Blandy, Fran (31 Dec 2007). "SA editor's escape from apartheid, 30 years on". Mail & Guardian. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2011. 
  8. Lynskey, Dorian (6 December 2013). "Nelson Mandela: The Triumph of the Protest Song". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 19 March 2017. Retrieved 26 October 2016. 
  9. "The 10 Greatest South Africans of all time". BizCommunity. 27 September 2004. Archived from the original on 7 July 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.