Xibhunu

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Xibhunu [1][2] i ririmi leri ngana timitsu eka ririmi ra xiJarimani xa N'walungu naswona rivulavuriwa etikweni ra Afrika Dzonga, namibhiya. Kasi rithlela rivulavuriwa-nyana ematikweni yaZimbabwe na botswana. Ririmileri ripfelele kusuka eka ririmi ra xiDhachi[3][4] xa le dzongeni ka tiko ra Holandi[5][6] naswona arivulavuriwa hi vafiki vamaDhachi e Afrika Dzonga, laha risunguleke ku vumbeka ritiyimela hi malembe-xidzana ya vukhume-nhungu.[7] Hikwalo, i ririmi-n'wana ra xiDhachi naswona a ritiveka tani hi xidhachi xale Kapa, kumbe "xiDhachi xale xitikweni". Hambiswiritano, rithlela ri tiviwa tani hiririmi roncisenyeta. hambileswi Xibhunu xilombeke marito eka tindzimi tin'wana, kuhlanganisa xiJarimani na xiKhoyi, kwalomu ka 90 kuya ka 95% wa swigaririmi swa Xibhunu swi suka eka xiDhachi. Hikwalaho, Xibhunu na xiDhachi kele eka ma-akele ya maviti, swivulwa na mavulavulele. Tindzimi leti ta yela naswona tithlela ti tsariwa kufana

Xibhunu iririmi ravunharhu eka nxaxamelo ya vukulu bya tindzimi leti vulavuriwaka e Afrika Dzonga, naswona rivulavuriwa hi kwalomu ka 7 wa timiliyoni, kumbe kwalomu ka 13.5% wa va-akatiko.[8] Ririmi leri rihangalake eka tinxaka na tindzawu ta tiko kutlula tindzimi tin'wana ta tiko. I ririmi-ximfumo ra xiyenge xa vupela-dyambu bya Afrika Dzonga—Swifundhza swa Kapa wan'walungu na Kapa ra vupela-dyambu—Naswona iririmi rosungula ra kwalomu ka 75% wa makhaladi (4.8 wa timiliyoni), 60.8% ya valungu (2.7 wa timiliyoni); 4.6% wa machayina ya le Afrika Dzonga (58,000 people), na 1.5% ya vanhu vantima vale Afrika Dzonga(600,000 wa vanhu).[9]

Ku engeta kwalaho, vanhu vantima votala lava vulavulaka tindzimi ta ndzhavuko wa Afrika, kuhlanganiza na xinghezi, va thela vavulavula Xibhunu tani hi ririmi ra vumbirhi. Radyondzisiwa eswikolweni, eka kwalomu ka 10.3 wa timiliyoni wa machudeni va leteriwa hi rona. xivangelo-nkulu xa kundlandlamuka ka tirimi leri kuve matirhisele ya rona eka swiyenge swa mfumo: ritirhisiwa eka maphepha-hungu, swiyanimoya, thelevixini, na vuhundzuluxeri byohlaya bya bhibhele, lebyi gandlisiweke kohlaya kusukela hi lembe ra 1933.

Xibhunu iririmi-ximfumo e tikweni ra Namibhiya naswona rivulavuriwa hi nhlaya ya vanhu yale henhla, kasi rithlela rivulavuriwa tani hiririmi ro sungula eka kwalomu ka 10.4% wa mindyangu, ngopfungopfu e nstindza wa tiko wa Windhoek, Walvis Bay, Swakopmund na tindhzawu ta le dzongeni ta Hardap na ǁKaras. Xibhunu na xiJarimani akuri tindzimi-ximfumo ta tiko ra Namibhiya kufikela loko rita kuma ntshuxeko hi lembe ra 1990, kwalomu ka 25% wa xitshungu xa Windhoek xivulavula Xibhunu ekaya. Havumbirhi bya tindzimi leti ti amukeriwa tani hi tindzimi ta swifundhza e tikweni ra Namibhiya, hambileswi Xinghezi kunga rona ririmi ra ximfumo.

Ntsengo wa vanhu lavavulavulaka Xibhunu i kwalomu ka 15 na 23 wa timiliyoni.

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0 
  2. Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-15253-2 
  3. K. Pithouse, C. Mitchell, R. Moletsane, Making Connections: Self-Study & Social Action, p.91
  4. J. A. Heese (1971). Die herkoms van die Afrikaner, 1657–1867 [The origin of the Afrikaner] (in Afrikaans). Cape Town: A. A. Balkema. OCLC 1821706. OL 5361614M. 
  5. Herkomst en groei van het Afrikaans - G.G. Kloeke (1950)
  6. Heeringa, Wilbert; de Wet, Febe; van Huyssteen, Gerhard B. (2015). "The origin of Afrikaans pronunciation: a comparison to west Germanic languages and Dutch dialects". Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus 47 (0). ISSN 2224-3380. doi:10.5842/47-0-649. 
  7. "Standaard Afrikaans". Abel Coetzee (Afrikaner Pers). 1948. Retrieved 2014-09-17. 
  8. Census 2011: Census in brief. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. 2012. p. 30. ISBN 9780621413885. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. 
  9. "Community profiles > Census 2011". Statistics South Africa Superweb. Archived from the original on 30 September 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2013.