Norho

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Xifaniso xa munhu loyi a lorhaka

Norho i nxaxamelo wa swifaniso, makungu na minthlaveko leswi ti endlekelaka e mi'hleketweni exikarhi ka swiphemu swokarhi swa vurhongo.[1] Leswi endlekaka e xikarhi ka milorho na xikongomelo xa milorho a swisi twisisiwa hi ku helela, hambi leswi ku veke na mindzavisiso ya sayensi, filosofi ku hlanganisa na tinhlamuselo hi vukhongori. Ku hlavutela milorho i matshalatshala yo kuma kutwisisa mungo na rungula leri nga kumekaka eka milorho.[2]

Milorho yi tala ku kumeka eka vurhongo bya milorho (REM), laha matirhele ya mi'hleketo mayelanaka na loko munhu a hanyanyile. Nkarhi lowu tekiwaka loko munhu a lorha, wa hambana hambana, naswona norho wu nga teka xinkarhana, kumbe kwalomu ka 20 - 30 wa timinete. Vanhu va tala ku tsundzuka norho loko va pfuxiwa exikarhi ka wona. Munhu u kota ku va na kwalomu ka milorho mi nharhu ku ya ka ya nthlanu hi siku, kasi van'wana ku fikela eka nkombo wa milorho hi siku; hambileswi milorho yi hatlisaka ku rivaleka.[3][4][5][6]

Ku na mavonele yo hambana hambana ya tinhlamuselo ta milorho, kuya hi mindzhavuko na tinguva. Votala va pfumelana na nhlamuselo ya Sigmund Freud, leswaku milorho yi paluxa kunavela na minthlaveko leyi tumbeleke eka munhu. Kasi tinhlamuselo ti n'wana ti vula leswaku milorho yi pfuna mi'hleketo ka hlayisa mahungu, kutsundzuka, kululamisa swiphiqo, kumbe leswaku kova matirhele ya byongo ntsena.[7]

Sigmund Freud, loyi a akeke xiphemu xa tidyondzo ta ndzavisiso wa matirhele ya mi'hleketo, u tsale matsalwa yo hlaya ku hlamusela milorho eku sunguleni ka malembe ya va 1900.[8] U hlamusele milorho kuri ku paluxeka ka kunavela, kumbe ku karhateka loku enteke loku fambelanaka na ku tsundzuka nkarhi wa vutsongwana. Kuthlandla kwalaho uthlela a hlamusela leswaku milorho hinkwayo yi fambelana na ku ntshunxa ntshikelelo wa timhaka ta masangu.[9] Eka buku yakwe leyi nga na nhlokomhaka The Interpretation of Dreams (1899), Freud u ake mahlahluvele yo hlavutela milorho na mimfungo leyi kumekaka e milorhweni. Eka manguva lawa milorho yi viniwa ku ri nhlavutelo wa byongo. Milorho yinga chavisa, yihlamarisa, yitsakisa, yihlanganisa mahlori kumbe timhaka ta masangu. Leswi endlekaka e milorhweni swile handle ka vutihlamuleri bya loyi a lorhaka.[10][11]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. "Dream". The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. 2000. Retrieved May 7, 2009. 
  2. Kavanau, J.L. (2000). "Sleep, memory maintenance, and mental disorders". Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 12 (2): 199–208. 
  3. Empson, J. (2002). Sleep and dreaming (3rd ed.)., New York: Palgrave/St. Martin's Press
  4. Cherry, Kendra. (2015). "10 Facts About Dreams: What Researchers Have Discovered About Dreams" About Education: Psychology. About.com.
  5. Ann, Lee (January 27, 2005). "HowStuffWorks "Dreams: Stages of Sleep"". Science.howstuffworks.com. 
  6. Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; van Rijn, Elaine; Gaskell, M Gareth; Lewis, Penelope A; Maby, Emmanuel; Malinowski, Josie E; Walker, Matthew P; Boy, Frederic et al. (2018-06-01). "Incorporation of recent waking-life experiences in dreams correlates with frontal theta activity in REM sleep". Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 13 (6): 637–647. 
  7. Morewedge, Carey K.; Norton, Michael I. (2009). "When dreaming is believing: The (motivated) interpretation of dreams.". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (2): 249–264. 
  8. Freud, S. (1900). The Interpretation of Dreams. London: Hogarth Press
  9. Cheung, Theresa (2006). The Dream Dictionary from A to Z. China: HarperElement. p. 437. 
  10. Lite, Jordan (July 29, 2010). "How Can You Control Your Dreams?". Scientific America. 
  11. Domhoff, W. (2002). The scientific study of dreams. APA Press