Xitonga

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Tonga
Gitonga
Rivulavuriwa e: Mozambique
Ntsengo wa Lavavulavulaka: 375,000
Muti wa ririmi: Niger-Congo
 Atlantic–Congo
  Benue–Congo
   Bantoid
    Bantu
     Southern
      Chopi (S.60)?
       Tonga
Tikhodi ta ririmi
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2:
ISO 639-3: toh

Xitonga (Chitonga, Guitonga) i ririmi leri ri vulavuriwaka e Mozambique, ngopfu hi xitalo e Nyembani (Inhambane). Ririmi ra Xitonga ri na ndzin’wana ya Xicopi lexi na xona xi vulavuriwaka e Nyembani. Ririmi ra Xitonga ri ni ku hundza ka malembe ya 1000 ri ri karhi ri vulavuriwa laha e Afrika, na namuntlha va ha ri kona lava va ti vitanaka Vatonga e Nyembani. Kambe hi ku hundza ka malembe leri ra le Mozambique ri fikile laha ri nga tekela swintsongo eka tindzimi tin’wani ku fana na Xikalanga, Xitswa, Xivhenda, na Xiputukezi.

Matimu ya ririmi[Lulamisa | edit source]

Xitonga i ririmi ra khale leri ri vulavuriwaka na le tindzhawini to fana na le Zambia, Zimbabwe, kambe na le Malawi. Namuntlha ku na ku hambana eka mavulavulelo ya Xitonga ematikweni lawa, tani hi leswi Vatonga va nga fika va tshama na tinxaka to hambana-hambana loko va rhurha e Central Afrika kun’wani kwalano kavo 500AD. Ku hangalaka ka ririmi leri, swi vangele leswaku vanghezi va ri tsala hi tindlela to hambana, kuya hi ndzhawo leyi a va ri dyondza kona; xikombiso: Xitonga xa le Zambia na Zimbabwe xi tekerile swintsongo mavulavulelo eka Xikalanga na Xishona, ivi vanghezi va xi tsala tani hi “Chitonga”. [1][2] Xitonga xa le Mozambique xi tekerile swintsongo mavulavulelo eka Xitswa, ivi vanghezi va xi tsala tani hi “Guitonga” kumbe “Thonga”.[3][4] Hi xikhale xa vaAfrika, swi tekiwa vanhu lava va ri rixaka rin’we, hambi leswi namutlha va nga hambana tindlela na mavulavulelo. Swi lava matimu ya vanhu lava ya nga avanyisiwi hi matsalelo ya vanghezi hi kuva matsalwa ya xinghezi ya tala ku onha matimu na vuxaka bya vaAfrika.

Tinxaka ta va Afrika khale a va nga swi koti ku ti tsalela matimu, kambe lava a va swi kota i va Europe (ku katsa va Portugal na va Swiss) lava va nga fika va sungula mfumu wa vona e Mozambique endzhaka 1560[5][6], kambe ku nga rivariwi leswaku vaTonga na vona a va kota ku hlayisa matimu ya vona hi ku ti thopa na vutlhokovetselo. Mudyondzi loyi a nga swi hlanganisa hi vu enti swa ririmi ri xiTonga (Thonga) i Junod. Swo tala leswi Junod a nga swi tsala hi rixaka leri a ri vitaniwa “Thonga tribe” swi seketeriwa hi Vatsonga vo tala eka masiko ya namuntlha.[7] Junod, endzhaka loko a tshamile a dyondza na vanhu lava hi matimu na mintolovelo ya vona, u kumile leswaku ririmi ra Xitonga (Thonga) a ri vulavuriwa hi Vatsonga va khale (na kwalano ehansi ka malembe ya vo 1400 a ri vulavuriwa) [8] - a nga tlhela a tsala leswaku[9]:

"My conclusion is then that the Thonga language was already-spoken by the primitive occupants of the country more than 500 years ago and that, together with a certain number of customs, it formed the great bond which bound the Thonga clans together in past centuries.” ─ (Junod 1912, p. 33)

Vulavisisi na vudyondzi bya vo Junod byi kotile ku hlanganisa matimu ya Vatsonga na ririmi leri ra khale ka vona. Swi fikile laha Junod a nga sungula ku tsala a hlanganisa Xitonga, Xirhonga, na Xitswa ivi ku kota ku tsariwa ti book to sungula-sungula ta Xirhonga na Xitsonga.

Minkombo[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Tonga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Hopgood, CR (1992), A Practical Introduction to Chitonga, Zambia: Zambia Educational Publishing House.
  3. Tonga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  4. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Gitonga". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  5. De Mesquita Perestrelo, M (1564), Naufragio da Não São Bento, Coimbra.
  6. De Sousa Ferreira, E & Davidson, B (1974), Portuguese Colonialism in Africa: The End of an Era, Paris: The UNESCO Press.
  7. Mathebula, Mandla (2002), 800 Years of Tsonga History: 1200-2000, Burgersfort: Sasavona Publishers and Booksellers Pty Ltd.
  8. Junod, Henry (1977), Matimu Ya Vatsonga: 1498-1650, Braamfontein: Sasavona Publishers.
  9. Junod, Henry (1912, 1927), The Life of a South African Tribe: The Social Life, Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Freres.

Nhlamuselo ya le handle[Lulamisa | edit source]