Robert Sobukwe

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Robert Sobukwe
Robert Sobukwe House 1.jpg
Vito leri heleleke: Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe
Siku Ro velekiwa: 5 N'wendzamhala 1924
Ndzhawu yo velekiwa: Graaff-Reinet, Afrika Dzonga
A lova hi: 27 Nyenyenyani 1978
Ndzhawu yo lova: Galeshwewe, Afrika Dzonga
Ntirho wakwe: Mulweri wa ntshuxeko  · Qhweta  · Mudyondzisi
Nhlangano: PAC
Nsati/Vasati: Zondeni Veronica Sobukwe
Vana: .


Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe (5 N'wendzamhala 1924 – 27 Nyenyenyani 1978) akuri n'wapolitiki na mulwela-nchuseko wa le Afrika Dzonga, loyi a simekeke nhlangano wa Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) lowu a wulwisana na mfumo wa xihlawu-hlawu. Hi lembe ra 2004 Sobukwe a langhiwile tani hi munhu wavu 42 eka nxaxamelo wa va Afrika Dzonga vo hlawuleka wa SABC3.

Evuton'wini byakwe, Sobukwe a a voniwa ari muluthanyi-nkulu lero mfumo wa xihlawu-hlawu wu humese nawu ephalamendhe ra wona lwu a wu vutiwa "Xinawana xa Sobukwe", lexi a xi ndlandlamuxa matimba ya mfumo, ngopfu-ngopfu a xi pfumelela ku engetela malembe ya ku khostsiwa ka Sobukwe.

Malembe ya vunthswa[Lulamisa | edit source]

Sobukwe uvelekiwe e Graaff-Reinet leyi nge Xifundzeni xa Kapa hi 5 N'wendzamhala 1924.[1] Sabukwe akuri rikotse eka vana va ntsevu, naswona ukulele e mutini wa vusweti laha athleleke a dyondza xikolo elokichini leri. U nghenele tidyondzo takwe tale henhla ekholechini ya Methodist le yinge Healdtown naswona endzaku aya nghena eYunivhesithi ya Fort Hare laha a tihlanganiseke na nhlangano ya vantshwa ya ANC (ANCYL) hilembe ra  1948 athlela a langhiwa kuva murhangeri wa machudeni eka (SRC).[2]

Ta vupolitiki[Lulamisa | edit source]

Hi lembe ra 1952 Sobukwe ukume ndhuma yaku hlohlotela tsima raku pfukela mfumo. A a pfumelelana na malandza ya ANC lawa ayari na mavonele ya vuAfrika, naswona hi lembe ra 1957 u sukele nhlangano wa ANC ivi ayava muhleri wa phephahungu ra The Africanist leri arikumeka eJoni.

A ari mupfumeri lonkulu wa vuAfrika na vumundzuku bya rona laha a aleke mavonele yo tirhisana na vanhu van'wana handle ka va Afrika, laha a hlamuseleke muAfrika kuri un'wana na un'wana loyi a hanyaka no tinyiketela eka mfumo wa vunyingi bya va Afrika. U hetelele a sukele nhlangano wa ANC leswaku a simeka Pan Africanist Congress (PAC), laha a thleleke alanghiwa leswaku ava murhangeri wa wona wosungula hi 1959.

Sobukwe a a tiviwa hi ra Phrofesa kumbe "Prof" eka vanakulori na alandzeri vakwe, leswi a swikombisa kudyondzeka na vutshila byakwe byo vulavula erivaleni no khorwisa. Uvulavule hi xilaveko xa "kuti kutsula" ka va Afrika dzonga handle ka kupfuniwa hi vanhu vale handle ka Afria. Uhlamusele vanhu vale handle ka Afrika, kuri un'wana na un'wana loyi anga xiximiku tiko-nkulu ra Afrika naswona a ala kuhanya ehansi ka mfumo wa vunyingi bya Afrika. Kupfumela kakwe eka mavonele lawa ku khutaze no hlohlotela vanhu na minhlangano yo tala leyi ayi lwisana na mfumo wa xihlawu-hlawu, ngopfu-ngopfu nhlangano wa ku Xalamuka ka vantima.

E Fort Hare, laha vantshwa votala va vantima va va Afrika Dzonga ava sungula ku nghenelela swa tipolitiki, Sobukwe u nghenelele nhlangano ya vantshwa ya ANC hi 1948. Nhlangano lowu awu simekiwe e yunivhesithini leyi hi Godfrey Pitje, loyi a thleleke ava murhangeri wa wona. Hi 1949 Sobukwe u langhiwe tani hi murhangeri wo sungula wa huvo ya machudeni, laha atikombiseke ari xivulavuri lexinene.

Hi lembe ra 1950 Sobukwe u thoriwile tani hi mudyondzisi exikolweni xa ntanga ya lehenhla xa Standerton, laha a thleleke a caciwa hileswi a seketeleke Tsima ra ku pfukela mfumo hi 1952. Kambe endzhakunyana uthlele a thoriwa exikolweni xelexo. Eka nkarhi lowu, a angasi nghenelela swa tiplolitiki ta ANC swa siku na siku, hambileswi a a ri matsalana wa vandla ra ANC kwale Standerton.

Hi lembe ra 1954 endzhaku ko rhurhela e Joni, Sobukwe uthoriwile tani hi mudyondzisi wa ti dyondzo ta Afrika e Yunivhesithi ya Vhetsi.[3] Hinkarhi lowu a a tshama le Joni, uthlele a tirha tani hi muhleri wa phepha-hungu ra The Africanist  laha a sunguleke ku sola vandla ra ANC leri pfumeleleke ku rhangeriwa hi vanhu lava a a va vula "Va fambisanaka na vuxaka na mavonele ya Ximatsi". Hambe swiritano a a pfumela no tinyiketela ku hetisa kuhlawulana hi kuya hi nhlonge. Athela ava museketeri lonkulu wa vonele ra xi Afrika eka kutshunxeka ka Afrika Dzonga naswona a ala vonele ro tirhisana na valungu.

Ku khotsiwa[Lulamisa | edit source]

Hi 21 Nyenyankulu 1960, PAC yi rhangele xitereka xa tiko hinkwaro lexi a xi kombisa kuvilela hi nawo wa Mapasi, lowu a wu sindzisa vantima ku khoma Pasi minkarhi hinkwayo. Sobukwe urhangele xitereka lexi a xikongome e xitichini xa maphorisa xa Orlando, e Soweto, laha va tluleke nawu wa pasi hivomu. Uhlanagnisiwe no landzeriwa hi valandzeri vohlayanyana, laha va humeseke mapasi yavona eka ndzhawu leyi a vanga pfumeleriwanga eka yona, ivi va kumeka vatlule nawu hindlela yeleyo. Eka xitereka xofana hi siku relero e lokichini ra Sharpeville, maphorisa ma duvurile no dlaya vanhu va 69 eka ntshungu va malandza ya PAC eka mhangu ya le Sharpville.

Endzhaku ka ku khomiwa kakwe, Sobukwe ulumbetiwile a thlela a gweviwa hi mhaka yo hlohlotela vanhu ku tlula nawu, laha a bihiweke malembe manharhu ekhotsweni. Endzaku ka ku heta xigwevo xakwe, u thlele a tekiwa ayisiwa e xihlaleni xa Robben Island. Kupfuxetiwa ka Nawu wa le rivaleni, kuthele ku endla swikoteka leswaku xigwevo xa Sobukwe xi engeteriwa hi malawuri wa ndzawulo ya Vululami. Xinawana lexi xithele xi vitiwa "Xinawana xa Sobukwe" naswona xitirhisiwe ku engetela xigwevo xa Sobkwe hi malembe manharhu .Sobukwe hi yena nstena loyi a khostiweke no tshikeleriwa hi ku tirhisa xinawana lexi.

Kukhotsiwa e xihlaleni xa Robben Island[Lulamisa | edit source]

Sobukwe a a khotsiwe a ri swakwe, kambe a thlela a pfumeleriwa ku kuma tibuku, maphepha-hungu, swi ambalo leswi tolovelekeke, xinkwa naswin'wana. A a hanya exiyengeni lexi hambanisiweke exihlaleni lexi laha a anga swikoti kuvonana na vabohiwa van'wana. Kambe a a kota ku vulavula na vona hikutirhisa mifungo ya xihundla ya mavoko, loko ari karhi a ti olola ehandle. Hambi swiritano, u swikotile ku pfumelela vandla ra PAC leswaku ri tekelela nongonoko wa politiki wa vu Mawo. Hinkarhi lowu wa ku khotsiwa, uyisile emahlweni tidyondzo takwe ta Ikhonomixsi laha a heteleleke a kuma Digri yakwe e Yunuvhesithi ya le Landhani.

Ku ehleketiwa leswaku Sobukwe a a khostiwe hindlela leyi yo hlawuleka hileswi a a chaviwa ngopfu hi mfumowa xihlahlawu ku tlula vabihiwa va vandla ra ANC.

Eka knarhi wa vubiwa byakwe, Sobukwe u hlakulele vunakulori byakwe na Benjamin Pogrund loyi a theleke a tsala buku ya vutomi byakwe endzhaku ka malembe yo hlaya (Sobukwe and Apartheid, Johannesburg: J. Ball, 1990).

Kimberley: Vukhumbi bya lekaya[Lulamisa | edit source]

Sobukwe u hetelele a kutsuriwa hi lembe ra 1969. Upfumeleriwe kuya tshama no hanya e dorobheni ra Kimberley swin'we na ndyangu wakwe hambi leswi a thleleke a bohiwa emutini wakwe a siveriwa ku famba famba a tshunxekile. Kimberley yi langiwile tani hi ndzhawu leyi a a ta kota tirha kona ehansi ka tinhlo ra mfumo. Uthele a siveriwa kuhlanganela swa tipolitiki.

Usiveriwe hi swinawana swo tala leswi hlanganiseke ku n'wisivela ku huma a tikweni noya entsungeni wa malwandle, leswi tsemeke milorho yakwe yo yisa tindyondzo takwe e mahlweni. Hiswona leswi endleke leswaku a ala mintirho yo letela e tindzawulweni ta hambana ta le Amerikha.

Sobukwe u hetisile tidyondzo takwe eka timhaka ta nawu hi ku pfuniwa hi qhweta rale ndzhawini ya Galeshwewe, ivi a sungula vuqhweta byakwe hi lembe ra 1975 e Kimberley.

Mavabyi na rifu[Lulamisa | edit source]

Hikwalaho ka vuvabyi byo leha bya Mfukuzana ya Mahahu, Sobukwe u amukeriwe e xibedlele hi 1977. Madokodela yakwe makombele mfumo leswaku wun'i pfumelela ntshuxeko wa ku famaba-famaba hikwalaho ka mavabyi. Xikombelo lexi xi aleriwile hi mfumo kufikela loko ata lova hi 27 Nyenyenyani 1978, naswona avekiwa eGraaf-Reinet hi 11 Nyenyankulu 1978.

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. "Robert Mangaliso Sobukwe", South African History Online.
  2. Maaba, Brown Bavusile (2001). "The Archives of the Pan Africanist Congress and the Black Consciousness-Orientated Movements". History in Africa 28: 417–438. JSTOR 3172227. doi:10.2307/3172227. (registration required (help)). 
  3. "Robert Sobukwe: 'There is only one race. The human race.'" History and heritage, SouthAfrica.info.

Mikongomiso ya le handle[Lulamisa | edit source]