Nghunghunyana

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Hosi Nghunghunyana
Nghonyama ya Gaza
Gungunhana.jpg
Xifaniso xa Hosi Nghunghunyana hi 1895
Vito leri heleleke Mdungazwe Nxumalo
U velekiwe hi 1850
Ndzhawu yo velekiwa Ka Gaza
A lova hi 1906
Ndzhawu yo lova Swihlaleni swa Azore
Sirha ra kwe e Angra de Heroism
Hosi leyi n'wi rhangeleke Mzila Nxumalo
Mudyandzhaka Godide Nxumalo
Hosi leyi n'wi landzeleke Magigwani
Yindlu ya vukosi Dlamini
Tata wakwe Mzila Nxumalo

Hosi Mdungazwe Nghunghunyana Nxumalo (1850 - 1906), hosi yo hetelela ya mfomo wa le kaGaza( e mozambhiki) laha a fumeke kusukela hi lembe ra 1884 kuya e ka lembe ra 1895. Mdungazwe i hosana ya muti wa ka Dlamini. Nghonyama ya Gaza (tani hi leswi a a tivewa ha kona) yi yi kote ku tiyisa mfumo wa kaGaza, hi ku tirhisa mano na vutsila bya vuthu rakwe ra nyimpi nkarhi wo ringana malembe yo tlulanyana makume nkombo-nthlanu (75) a nga si khotsiwa hi ka ntsikelelo wa maphutukezi.

Kutani eku heteleleni u hluriwile, naswona u bohiwile a yisiwa e tikweni ra maphutukezi e ntsindza wa kona kunga Lisbon. U tekiwe na vasati vakwe va nkombo; n'wana, malume wakwe na swirho swin'wana swa bandla rakwe. Endzhaku ko thsama xinkadyana e lisbon, u rhurheriwe e xihlaleni xa Azore, laha a tshameke kona kufikela loko a khinsama ra makumu endzhaku ka malembe ya khume-nw'e a ri mubohiwa e azore.

Malembe ya vutomi bya yena[Lulamisa | edit source]

Kutswariwa na rixaka[Lulamisa | edit source]

Mdungazwe kumbe Mudungazi loyi a tlakuseriwe e xiluvelweni xa vukosi bya le kaGaza hi lembe ra 1884, u tswariwile e vukosini hi lembe ra 1850 kun'wana e xikarhi ka nambu wa Zambhezi na nambu wa Nkomati, naswona swinga endleka leswaku u tswaleriwe kunwana kusuhi na ribuwa ra Limpopo laha ntsindza wa mfumo wale kaGaza a wu simekiwe kona.

Mdungazi i n'wana wa Hosi Mzila Nxumalo (loyi a fumeke kusukela hi lembe ra 1861 kuya e ka lembe ra 1884) na Yosiwo, loyi a tshuriweke vito ra Umpebekecana endzhaku ka rifu rakwe. Kokwa wakwe a a ri n'wana wa Hosi Soshangane Manukosi Nxumalo, murhangheri wa Vangoni lava va tsutsumeke nyimpi e tikweni ra kaZulu hi nkarhi wa Mpisana(Kumbe Mfecane), naswona a aka mfumo wa le kaGaza.

Malembe ya vunthswa(1850-1864)[Lulamisa | edit source]

Mdungazwe a kule e nkarhini wa madzolonga na ku chava loku a ku hlasele tiko hinkwaru. Kokwa wakwe Manukosi a a ha ku rhurhela e n'walungu wa tiko kusuka e tikweni ra kaZulu, a rhangele vuthu leri chavekaka ra Vangoni ( Va-angune kumbe Vatuwa hikuya hi maphutukezi) hinkarhi wa tinyimpi ta mpisana kwalomu ka lembe ra 1820. Manukosi u simekile mfumo wa le kaGaza (Vito ra Kokwa wakwe Gaza), lowu a wu aname hi 56 000 km² naswona u langa muganga wa Chayimeti tani hi ntsindza wa mfumo.

Hi xona xiyimo lexi Mdungazi loyi a a tava Nghunghunyani Nghonyama ya Gaza a twsaleriweke e hansi ka xona, n'wana wa Hosi Mzila waka Nxumalo, Hosana ya muti wa ka Dlamini. U kule a dyondza nyimpi naswona a hoxa xandla e ka tinyimpi leti tsongo to ndlandlamuxa mfumo leti a ti lulamisiwa hi kokwa wakwe, ndzhaku tata wakwe lembe ni lembe. Nghunghunyani a a akekele kulwa, naswona a nga hlwelanga ku twisisa ndlela ya nyimpi leyi sunguriweke hi kokwa wakwe Manukosi na Hosi Shaka.

Mfumo wa Hosi Mzila (1864-1884)[Lulamisa | edit source]

Endzhaku ka ku khinsama ka Soshangane ra makumu, ku sunghule nyimpi yo lwela vukosi e xikarhi ka Mamewe na Mzila, naswona hambileswi Manukosi a a lange Mzila tani hi mudyandzhaka wa yena, Mawewe u tekile vukosi. Mzila u hlurile makwavo hi ku pfuniwa hi maphutukezi hi lembe ra 1864 naswona u sungurile ku kurisa vukosi bwa kwe e mfun'weni hinkwawo wa tiko ra lekaGaza.

Hi nkarhi lowu, Mdungazwe a a sungula ku toloveleka e hubyweni ya Mzila. Loko tata wakwe a khinsama ra makumu, Mafeman a ari yena mudyanzhaka tani hi leswi mana wakwe a kuri yena Nsati-nkulu (Nkosikazi), kambe Mdungazi u sungel nyimpi yo lwela vukosi naswona u dlayile mafemana leswaku a kuma xiluvelo xa vukosi bya le kaGaza. Leswi swi bohe Hanyani na Mafabazi lewsaku va ya e vuchavela-hwahwa.

Hikwalaho hi lembe ra 1884, Mdungazwe u hlambanyisiwe tani hi mufumi wa le kaGaza naswona a ti tshula vito ra Nghunghunyana n'wana wa Mzila wa ka Nxumalo Nghonyama ya Gaza.

Hosi Nghunghunyana (1884 -1895)[Lulamisa | edit source]

Hosi Nghunghunyana hi lembe ra 1885

U ku sunguleni ka ku fuma kakwe, mfumo wa le kaGaza a nase wu ndlandlamuke kufikela kwalomu ka 90 000 km² hi ku anama naswona a wuri na va aka tiko va kwalomu ka nthanu wa madzana-dzana ( 500 000 ). Nghunghunyani a rhurherise ntsindza wa mfumo wakwe ku suka e Chayimeti naswona a wusimeka e Mandhlakazi (Manjacaze) hi rona lembe rero.

A ri na ma lembe ya makume-nharhu mune (34), u sungule ku fuma e nkarhini lowu kotlaneke na ntsombano wa le Berlin ( Hi 15 Nhlangula (Nov?) 1884 ku ya ka 26 Nhlangula 1885 ) laha Afrika yi aviweke hi matiko lamakulu ya Yuropa. Xikan'we-kan'we huvo ya hosi nghunghunyani yi rhumerile phfumba hi nhweti ya Sunguti e ka muyimeri wa mfumo wa ma phutukezi e dorobeni ra Xiluvani, leswaku va yisa nyiko ya vunghana no tivisa mufumi lontshwa.

Murhangeri wa rhavi Agostinho Coelho e Xiluvani narona ri hlamule hi ku rhumela muyimeri wa rona eka huvo ya nghunghunyana e xikarhi ka lembe ra 1885. Muyimeri loyi a langiweke a ku ri Casaleiro Jose de Alegria Rodrigues, loi a hatleke a xiximeka e hubyweni leyi. Ku hlawuriwa ka Casaleiro ku haxe mbewu ya makwanga e xikarhi ka vayimeri va maphutukezi lava a va ri e xiluvani, naswona leswi swi vange ma dzolonga lama landzeleke.

Casaleiro u nyikiwe ntirho wo tsundzuxa hosi nghunghunyana hi ta xipfumelelwano xa lembe ra 1861 lexi a xirikona e xikarhi ka Maphutukezi na tata wakwe Hosi Mzila wa ka Nxumalo, lexi a nase a xi rivariwile. Nghunghunyana u pfumerile ntwanano wolowo ivi ku vumbiwa phfumba ra vukosi leswaku ri ya yimela Hosi Nghunghunyana (Hikwalaho kaswiyilana leswi a swi sivela vanhu vale vukosini ku tluta lwandle) hale ka malwadle e tikweni ra Maphutukezi, e mahlweni ka Hosi Louis wosungula. Pfhumba leri a ri akiwa hi vavanuna vambirhi lava a vari e hubweni ya Hosi Nghunghunyana, kunga Mathanda-Konke (60 wamalembe hi vu khale) na Maphinda (60 wamalembe hi vu khale). Pfhumba leri ri fike e Dorobeni ra Lisbon hi September?? nasona vahlangana na Hoi hi 18 September?? 1885.

Hambileswi pfhumba leri ari kanakanisa e mahlweni ka huvo ya Hosi Louis, vasayinile ntwanano wa vunghana e xikarhi ka Hosi Nghunghunyana wa mfumo wa le kaGaza na Hosi Louis wosungula wa mfumo wa maphutukezi hi siku ra 12 October?? 1885, leswi kandziyisiweke ek Gazzete ya xifundza xa Mozambhiki hi siku ra 9 Sunguti 1886.

Ntwanano a wu tiyisekisa vukona bya maphutukezi e tikweni ra mfumo wa le kaGaza nawona wu pfumelela ku famba-famba na ku fambisa mabindzu, hi hala thlelo wu nyika hoi nghunghunyani mfanelo ya ku rhangela ntlawa wa vumbhirhi wa vuthu ra maphutukezi naswona yena navuthu rakwe va nyikiwa Unifomo ya mavuthu ya maphutukezi. Ntwanano lowu a wu amukeriwanga kahle hikwalaho ka ku kanakanisa ka pfhumba leri rhumeriweke na nhlohlotelo lowu Casaleiro a a hleketeriwa ku va nawona.

Pfhumba ra vumbirhi ri rhumiwile hi hosi nghunghunyani kuya e ka hosi Louis wo sungula hi lembe ra 1887, laha ku rhumiweke N'Tonga wa yindlu ya Mandlakazi na Udaka wa yindlu ya Udengo. pfhumba leri ri antswine ngopfu ku tlula lero sungula. Ri amukeriwe Hi Hosi Louis na nghamu yakwe, naswona va memeriwe eka rendzo ra ximfumo ro hlahluva mavuthu na swibalesa swa mfumo.

Hambiswiritano xiboho xa ntsombano wa Berlin wo aviwa ka Afrika xi vule leswaku maphutukezi a ma boheka ku tiyisisa vukolongi bya mfumo wa vona e mozambhiki. Nghunghunyana u sungule ku xunghetiwa hi vafiki lava kunga maphutukezi na maghezi tanihileswi a a swivona leswaku va lwetana hi ku lava ku lawula tiko ra yena. leswi swi sungule ku byala mano yobiha hi huvo ya yena na hi vamakwavo lava a va rile vuchavela-whawha.

Minkombo ya le handle[Lulamisa | edit source]