Vuyuda

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Switirhisiwa swa vukhongeri bya Vuyuda kuhlanganisa na makhandlela ya Savatha, ndzeko wo hlamba mandla, na Tora.

Vuyuda i vukhongeri byakhale swinene, lebyi simekiweke eka matsalwa ya Torah (Leyinga xiyenge xa Tanakh kumbe Bibhele ya Xiheveru), kuhlanganisa na mindzhavuko leyi kumekaka eka matsalwa lama landzeleke ya Midrash na Talmud. Vuyuda i vukhongeri, Filosofi, ndzhavuko na mahanyele ya mayuda.[1] Vuyuda byi voniwa hi vakhongeri va mayuda, tanihi vuxaka bya xipfumelwano lebyi Xikwembu xiveke nabyona na vana va Israyele.[2] Vuyuda i vukhongeri bya vu khume hi vunyingi bya valandzeri emisaveni naswona byina kwalomu ka 14.5 kuya eka 17.4 wa timiliyoni ta valandzeri.[3] [4]

Vuyuda byina matsalwa yo hlaya, maendlele ya swilo, nama mixaka ya tinhlangano. Eka vuyuda kuna mintlawa yo hambana hambana, leyi sukeke eka vufundhisi bya vuyuda, laha va pfumelaka leswaku Xikwembu xi hlavutele milawu ya xona eka Moxe entshaveni ya Sinayi, hi ku tirhisa Tora leyi tsariweke naswona yitlela yi vulavuriwa hi nomo.[5] Hikuya hi matimu, dyondzo leyi yikanetiwile ngopfu hi mintlawa ya mayuda ya va Sadusi na Vahelena, hinkarhi wa tempele ya vumbirhi, nakambe yithlela yi kanetiwa hi mintlawa ya va Karayiti na va Sabatewu.[6] [7]  Namunthla ntlawa lowu kulu wa vuyuda IVuyuda-ntiyela (kunga Vaharedi na Vayuda-ntiyela va manguva lawa), Vuyuda bya xikhale na vuyuda lebyi pfuxetiweke. Kuhambana loku kulu eka mintlawa leyi i ndlela leyi mintlawa leyi yi landzelerisaka nawu wa xiyuda, matimba ya vafundhisi vaxiyuda na kuxixima tiko-ximfumo ra Israyele.[8] Vuyuda-ntiyela byi pfumela leswaku Tora na nawu wa xiyuda swa kwetsima, iswa hilaha kunga heriki naswona aswi cinceki, naswona swi fanela ku landzeleriwa hilaha ku heleleke. Vuyuda bya xikhale byi pfumela eka ku landzelela vuyuda bya ndzhavuko, kasi vuyuda lebyi pfuxetiweke, byi pfumela leswaku nawu wa xiyuda ahi xikolokolo.[9][10] hikuya hi matimu akuri na tihuvo ta nawu wa xiyuda, kambe masku lawa ku pfumeriwa leswaku vuyuda imhaka yo tilangela.[11]

Vayuda byi ya hi ntlawa wa rixaka naswona byi hlanganisa na lava hundzukelaka eka vukhongeri lebyi. Hi lembe ra 2015, ntsengo wa mayuda emisaveni awu kombeteriwa kwalomu ka 14.3 wa timiliyoni emisaveni.[12] Kwalomu ka 43% wa mayuda makumeka e tikweni ra Israyeli kasi ti n'wana tiphesenti ta 43% ta mayuda makumela e Amerikha na Khanada, kasi lava saleke vakumeka eka matiko-nkulu man'wana.

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Jacobs, Louis (2007). "Judaism". In Fred Skolnik. Encyclopaedia Judaica 11 (2d ed.) (Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale). p. 511. ISBN 978-0-02-865928-2. "Judaism, the religion, philosophy, and way of life of the Jews." 
  2. Knowledge Resources: Judaism. Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  3. 14.3 million (core Jewish population) to 17.4 million (including non-Jews who have a Jewish parent), according to: *Template:Cite report 14–14.5 million according to: *"Worldwide Jewry numbers 14 million". Ynet. Retrieved 21 October 2013.  *"Jewish Population". Judaism101. Retrieved 20 September 2013.  *Daniel J. Elazar. "How Strong is Orthodox Judaism – Really? The Demographics of Jewish Religious Identification". Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. Retrieved 20 September 2013.  *"The Global Religious Landscape – Jews". Pew Research Center. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 31 October 2013. 
  4. Lewis (1984), pp. 10, 20
  5. "What is the oral Torah?". Torah.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  6. "Karaite Jewish University". Kjuonline.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  7. "Karaites". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  8. "Jewish Denominations". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  9. "Reform Judaism". ReligionFacts. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  10. "What is Reform Judaism?". Reformjudaism.org. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  11. Encyclopædia Britannica. "Britannica Online Encyclopedia: Bet Din". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 
  12. "World Jewish Population 2015". Retrieved 8 August 2016.