Soshanghana

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Soshanghana
Manukosi
Vito leri heleleke Soshanghana Nxumalo
U velekiwe hi 1780
Ndzhawu yo velekiwa KwaNongoma
A lova hi 11 Nhlangula 1858
Ndzhawu yo lova Chayimiti  · Mozambhiki
Hosi leyi n'wi landzeleke Mawewe NxumaloMzila Nxumalo
Yindlu ya vukosi Dlamini
Tata wakwe Zikode kaGasa
Vana Mzila  · Mawewe  · Mpisana I

Soshanghana ka Zikode (ca 1780 - † 11 Nhlangula 1858[1] ), (loyi a tswariweke Soshanghana Nxumalo a thlela a tiviwa hi ra Manukosi/Manukuza) a kuri hosi na musimeki wa mfumo wa Gaza, lowu emanembeleleni ya wona awu fuma ndzonga ra tiko ra Mozambhiki, kufikela eka nambu wa Limpopo. Soshanghana u fumile e Gaza kusukela hi lembe ra 1825 kufikela loko a lova hi lembe ra 1858. Manukosi,[2] na mavuthu ya yena ya nyimpi valwe nyimpi na Janse van Rensburg na va valangi vakwe va mabhunu, laha vadlayeki hikwavo, kusala vana vambirhi ntsena.[3]

Matimu yo sungula[Lulamisa | edit source]

Soshanghana u tswariwe hi lembe ra 1780 endzhawini leyi namunthla yi vitiwaka KwaNongoma, eKwaZulu Natala naswona tata wakwe akuri Zikode ka Gasa, ndhuna ya rhavi leri tsongo ra rixaka raka Ndwandwe. Ndzisana yakwe akuri Mhlabawadabuka. Vaka Gasa ava tshama e ndzhawini ya Mkuze ethlelweni ra ntshava yale eTshaneni (Ntshava ya Swipuku) kasi rhavi ra muti lerikulu ehansi ka Zwide ari ake eMagudu ekusuhi na nkova wa Pongola. Hinkarhi lowufanaka vaka Ndwandwe ava rikarhi va kula eka matimba ya vona ya tinyimpi, naswona Zwide tlakukele eka vuhosi bya ka Ndwandwe-Nxumalo, endzhaku ka kulova ka tata wakwe Langa KaXaba.

Tinyimpi ta va Ndwande na maZulu[Lulamisa | edit source]

Hiwona nkarhi lowu Zwide a ringeteke ku ndlandlamuxa mfumo wa yena, naswona hi lembe ra 1818 u hlurile mfumo wa ka Mthethwa, endzhaku ka loko a dlele hosi ya vona Dingiswayo ka Jobe. Zwide na mavuthu ya yena ya va Ndwandwe, vatshovile no hlula mfumo wa ka Khumalo lowu ava akelanile na wona vathlela va dlaya hosi ya wona Mashobana ka Mangete hi ku pfuniwa hi N'wahosi Ntombazi, nyanga na nsati wa ka Langa ka Xaba. Mzilikazi Nw'ana wa Mashobana na mudyandzhaka wa mfumo lowu, u tshutshumile aya luvela eka hosi Shaka, loyi a tiyiseke masalela ya rixaka ra ka Mthethwa ehansi ka kwe. maNdwandwe na maZulu, va tlumbanile ro sungula eka nyimpi ya Tshuna ra Gqokli laha Zwide na mudyandzhaka wakwe Nomahlanjana va rhangeleke mavuthu ya va Ndwandwe, hambileswi ku nga hava loyi a hluleke eka nyimpi leyi, mavuthu lawa amata thlela ma tlumbana nakambe. Hi 1820, mavuthu ya ka Ndwandwe lawa ama rhangeriwe hi Soshanghana ka Gasa ehansi ka hosi Zwide, mahlaseriwe hi mavuthu ya ma Zulu loko varikarhi va tlula nambu wa Mhlatuze, laha vahluriweke kona hambi leswi mavuthu hamambirhi ma lahlekeriweke hi nhlayo leyi kula ya masocha. Endzhaku ka kuhluriwa, Soshanghana urhangele masalela ya mavuthu yakwe na vanhu vaka Ndwandwe en'walungu vatsutsuma mfumo wa Shaka.

Kusimekiwa ka mfumo wa Gaza[Lulamisa | edit source]

Mavuthu ya vaNgoni, lava vanga masalela ya rixaka ra Zwangendaba,[4] xifaniso xitekiwe eku heleni ka lembe-xidzana ra vu 19.

Soshanghane u tsutsumile na valandzeri vakwe ari na ndzisana yakwe Mhlabawadabuka, va kongoma e vuxeni bya Tintshava ta Rivombo (Lebombo), va ololoka vakala va fika enambyini wa Tembe. Kwalomu ka 1825, Soshanghana ufikile etikweni rale xikarhi ka Matsolo na nambu wa Nkomati, laha akumeke Zwangendaba Hlatswayo wa rixaka ra Jele, loyi akuri khale ka ndhuna ya va Ndwandwe. Vumbirhi bya vona byi fikelele xipfumelelwano xo fumisana, kambe Soshanghana anga anetiseki hikuva a a lava ku tivatlela mfumo wakwe. Endzhaku ka ku hambana exikarhi ka Soshanghana na ndzisana yakwe Mhlabawadabuka, Zwangendaba na valandzeri vakwe va sukile vakongoma etikweni ra vaVhenda, exikarhi ka milambu ya Limpopo (Vembe) na Levubu (Ribvubye), naswona va valandzeriwa hi Mhlaba. Zwangendaba utshamile kona xinkarhana, angase rhurhela en'walungwini e tikweni ra Varozwi, kusuhi na Bulawayo wa namunthla, laha a hluleke Vashona. Kusuka kona Zwangendaba usukile akongoma etikweni ra Manyika en'walungu bya vuxa laha a hlanganeke na Soshanghana ekusunguleni ka malembe ya 1830. Zwangendaba utsutsumile atlula nambu wa Zambezi, a bhaleka Soshanghana hi lembe ra 1835, loko va hambanile na Mhlabawadabuka hi lembe ra 1834. Hi lembe ra 1825 Nxaba Msane, un'wana wa khale ka ndhuna ya mavuthu ya va Ndwandwe uxikile enkaveni ya Mozambhiki, exifundzheni xa Sofala, laha a fumeke kufikela malembe ya khume, exikarhi ka 1825 na 1835. Hi lembe ra 1835 Soshanghana u hlurile Nxaba, hi loko Nxaba a kongoma e zambiya. Soshanghana utshamile xinkarhana eMusapa e Zimbabwe, endzhaku ka ku hlula Nxaba, naswona uhlurile Vandawu na Vamanyika.

Kusuka kwalano Soshanghana usungule ku aka mfumo wakwe waku vutla wa vangoni lowu tiviweke hi mfumo wa Gaza, lowu a wuthyeke hi vito ra kokwa wakwe Gasa ka Langa, lowu ndlandlamukeke kufunengeta ndzhawu ya dzonga bya tiko ra Mozambhiki wa namunthla, na swiyenge swa nambu wa Limpopo ekusuhi na Mandlakazi. Mfumo wa Gzaa, awusimekiwe hi kuhlula hi tinyimpi, laha wuhluleke na ku khonzisa  Vahlengwe, Vadjonga, Vahlave na VaNdawu, lava veke va akatiko va mfumo lowu wa Vangoni. Soshanghana uthlele a sungula tsima ro tumbuluxa ririmi na ndhavuko wuntswa lowu awu thyeke hi vito rakwe. Uthlele a sungula na kuavanyisa mfumo hikuya hi swiyenge swa mfumo wakwe. VaNdawu, Vakhosa, na Vahlave lava vahluriweke ava aka xiyenge na mavuthu ya Mavulandlela, naswona vadyondzisiwe tindlela to lwa ta xingoni. Hi lembe ra 1828, Shaka urhumele phumba ra mavuthu yo xupula, leswaku vaya herisa nava rakwe leri nge en'walungu, kambe hikwalaho ka mavabyi bya Dzedzedze na ndlala, va hluriwile hi Soshanghana. Mavuthu ya Soshangana ma tlumbanile na vafiki va maphutukezi eribuweni ra Delagowa, e Nyembane na Sena, naswona uhlengeletile swibhalo eka vafiki lava vamaphutukezi. Soshanghana i un'wana wa tindhuna ta nyimpi leti nga tiveka ngopfu hinkarhi wa tinyimpi ta Matiwana (Mfecane).[5][6][7]

Nxaxamela wa tihosi ta vaNdwandwe/Nxumalo[Lulamisa | edit source]

  • Nxumalo
  • Ndwandwe kaNxumalo
  • Mkhatshwa kaNdwandwe
  • Manukuse KaMkhatshwa
  • Makweya kaManukuse
  • Gasa kaMakweya
  • Zikode KaGasa
  • Soshangane KaZikode

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Bonner, P (1982). Kings,Commoners and Concessionaires. UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 96. ISBN 0-52124270-3. 
  2. http://www.krugerpark.co.za/africa_shangaan_tsonga.html
  3. http://www.sahistory.org.za/dated-event/johannes-jacobus-janse-lang-hans-van-rensburg-leader-one-early-voortrekker-treks%C2%A0-born-s
  4. Fleming, C. J. W. "The Zwangendaba Succession". The Ngoni People of Africa. Blog at WordPress.com. Retrieved 10 August 2016. 
  5. Encyclopædia Britannica
  6. 1820 in South Africa:Port Elizabeth, 1820 Settlers, Battle of Mhlatuze
  7. The Washing of the Spears