Oxiyeniya

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Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava

Oxiyeniya

Mepe wa misava lowu kombaka tiko-nkulu ra Oxiyeniya

Vundhzawu 8,525,989km2
Ntsengo wa vanhu 41,050,699
Ntlimbano 4.19/km2 (10.9/sq mi)
Matiko
Swihlalana
Tindzimi Tindzimi ta Oxiyeniya na tinwana

Oxiyeniya i tiko-nkulu kumbe xifundza xa ndzawu leyi hlanganisaka Ostraliya na Swihlala leswinge lwandle ra Phasifiki.[1][2][3] Oxiyeniya yi funengeta kwalomu ka 8,525,989 wa tiskwe-mitara naswona yina vaakatiko va 41,050,699. Oxiyeniya itiko-nkulu leritsongo kutlula matiko-nkulu hinkwawo ya misava.

Oxiyeniya yina mpfangano wa ti-ikhonomi, kusukela eka ikhonomi leyi hluvukeke ngopfu ya Ostraliya na Nyuzilendi leti hlayiwaka eka matiko ya khume ya misava lama hluvukeke kuya hi vutomi lebyinene,[4][5] kuya eka matiko lama ha kasaka kufana na Kiribati na Tuvalu.[6] Ostraliya hirona tiko leru kulu eka matiko ya Oxiyeniya, naswona Sidni hirona dorobha leri kulu eka madorobha ya matiko ya Oxiyeniya.[7]

Vanhu vosungula kufika e Ostraliya, Gineya leyintshwa na swihlala swa ndzhawu leyi, vangava vafikile kona kwalomu ka malembe ya 50,000 na 30,000 lama hundzeke. Oxiyeniya yivalangiwile rosungula hi vayuropa hi lembe-xidzana ravu 16 kuya emahlweni. Vavalangi va maphutukezi va fikile e swihlaleni swa Tanimbari, Carolina na Papuwa Nyugini, exikarhi ka malembe ya 1512 na 1526. Eka riendzo rayena rosungula hilembexidzana ravu 18, James Cook ufikile e Tahiti, ivi alandzelela swihlala akala a fika eribuweni rale vuxeni bya Ostraliya. Ndzhawu leyi ya Phasifiki yivone minjhekanjhekiswano yihlaya exikarhi ka Amarikha na Japani, hinkarhi wa nyimpi ya misava yavumbirhi.[8]

Kufika ka vakolonyi vale Yuropa eka malembexidzana lama landzeleke, kutisile kucinca loku kulu eka vutomi bya siku na siku kuhlanganisa na swa tipolitiki ta ndzhawu leyi ya misava. Eka manguva lawa, matiko yotala ya Oxiyeniya masungula kuvulavula hi xikongomelo xo cinca mujeko ya matiko ya wona leswaku makombisa mifungo ya wona.[9] Mpfapfarhuto wale maribweni wa le Ostraliya ivutshila byakhale ngopfu lebyi ngakavanyetiwangiku kusukela khale na swona ixiyenge xankoka xandzhavuko wa vanhu vosungula va Ostraliya.[10] Ntshava ya Puncak Jaya e Papuwa hiyona nhlohlorhi leyi leheke ngopfu e Oxiyeniya.[11] Matiko yotala ya Oxiyeniya mana xiyimiso xavu demokhrasi na Phalamendhe leyi akiwaka hi mintlawa yohambana hambana ya swa tipolitiki, naswona vuvhaki hiyona nkomponi leyi nga xihlovo xa mintirho yotala ematikweni lawa.[12]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Scholastic Atlas of the World. 2003.  "Oceania is the smallest of all the continents"
  2. For a history of the term, see Douglas & Ballard (2008) Foreign bodies: Oceania and the science of race 1750–1940
  3. "Oceania". 2005.
  4. "Australia: World Audit Democracy Profile". WorldAudit.org. Archived from the original on 13 December 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008. 
  5. "Rankings on Economic Freedom". The Heritage Foundation. 2016. Retrieved 30 November 2016. 
  6. "Kiribati: 2011 Article IV Consultation-Staff Report, Informational Annexes, Debt Sustainability Analysis, Public Information Notice on the Executive Board Discussion, and Statement by the Executive Director for Kiribati". International Monetary Fund Country Report No. 11/113. 24 May 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
  7. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2003-08-20. Retrieved 2010-08-30. 
  8. "Secret Instructions to Captain Cook, 30 June 1768". National Archives of Australia. Retrieved 3 September 2011. 
  9. Dimensions of Australian Society, Ian McAllister – 1994, p 333
  10. "Oceanic art", The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition 2006.
  11. MacKay (1864, 1885) Elements of Modern Geography, p 283
  12. "Prehistoric man at Lake Mungo, Australia, by 32,000 years BP.". Nature 240 (5375). 1972. pp. 46–8. PMID 4570638. 


 
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