Byala

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Xifaniso xa François Jaques: vavanuna va tsakela kunwa byala ebarheni ra Fribourg (Switzerland, 1923)

Byala i muxaka wa xitimula-torha lexingana xihoko xa khale lexi tivekaka emisaveni[1][2][3] naswona lexi nwiwaka ngopfu[4]; xithela xi va xitimula-torha xavunharhu hi kurhandziwa, kulandzela Mati na Tiye.[5] Kusweka ka byala swihlanganisa kuvirisa hi comela na chukela, hi kutirhisa vudangwana bya mavele kumbe rhayisi.[6] Byala bya manguva lawa bya nadzihisiwa hi kutirhisa matsavu yo karhi kumbe muhandzu. Matsalwa yakhale lama tiviwaka, mahlamusela maswekele na vuphakeri bya byala.[7] Xikhongelo xa xikwembu xa byala xa vaMesopotamiya, axitirhisiwa kuhlayisa maswekele ya byala eka ndhzavuko wa vona.[8][9]

Matimu[Lulamisa | edit source]

Maswekele ya byala masukela kwalomu ka malembe ya  9500 BC, loko vanhu va sungula ku byala mavele, naswona a byi tiviwa kuya hi matimu ya Iraki na Gibita.[10] Va hlahluvi va Swityelwa swa matimu va pfumela leswaku byala byi ngava na xandla eku simekeni ka mindzhavuko ya vanhu. Kwalomu ka 5000 wa malembe lamahundzeke, vatirhi va dorobha ra Uruk (Leringa Iraki namunthla) avahakeriwa hi majomela ya byala.[11] Hinkarhi wa ku akiwa ka tiPhiramidi ta Giza, e Gibita, mutirhi un'wana na un'wana a a hakeriwa hi mindzheko ya nthlanu ya byala hi siku.[12]

Mintsaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Rudgley, Richard (1993). The Alchemy of Culture: Intoxicants in Society. London: British Museum Press;. ISBN 978-0714117362. 
  2. Arnold, John P (2005). Origin and History of Beer and Brewing: From Prehistoric Times to the Beginning of Brewing Science and Technology. Cleveland, Ohio: Reprint Edition by BeerBooks. ISBN 0-9662084-1-2. 
  3. World's Best Beers: One Thousand ... - Google Books. books.google.com. 2009-10-06. ISBN 9781402766947. Retrieved 2010-08-07. 
  4. "Volume of World Beer Production". European Beer Guide. Retrieved 17 October 2006. 
  5. Max Nelson (2005). The Barbarian's Beverage: A History of Beer in Ancient Europe. Routledge. p. 1. ISBN 0-415-31121-7. 
  6. Barth, Roger.
  7. "Beer Before Bread". Alaska Science Forum #1039, Carla Helfferich. Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  8. "Nin-kasi: Mesopotamian Goddess of Beer". Matrifocus 2006, Johanna Stuckey. Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  9. Black, Jeremy A.; Cunningham, Graham; Robson, Eleanor (2004). The literature of ancient Sumer. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926311-6. 
  10. "Beer". Britannica.com. 
  11. George, Alison (June 22, 2016).
  12. Tucker, Abigail (August 2011).