Zwelakhe Sisulu

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Zwelakhe Sisulu
Vutomi
Ndzhawu yovelekiwa N'wendzamhala 17, 1950
Tiko ra vutshami Afrika-Dzonga
Kaya rakwe Joni
Ndzhawu yolova Nhlangula 4, 2012
Ndyangu
Tata wakwe Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu
Mana wakwe Albertina Nontsikelelo Sisulu
Ndzisana
Education
Uleteriwe e Harvard University
Tindzimi leti a a titiva, kutsala na kuvulavula Xinghezi
Ntirho
Ntirho Muteki wa mahungu nakambe businessperson
Masagwati lama kumiweke

Zwelakhe Sisulu (17 N'wendzamhala 1950 – 4 Nhlangula 2012) a a ri mutsari wa mahungu wa wantima wa Afrika Dzonga, muhleri, na musunguri wa nyuziphepha. A a ri president wa nhlangano wa Writers' Association of South Africa, leyi ka ndzhaku yi nga va Black Media Workers Association of South Africa (kumbe Mwasa), na swona u ve murhangeri wa xitereke lexi nga teka lembe hinkwaro hi lembe ra 1980 laha vatsari (tijenalisti) ta vantima a ti lwela leswo va kuma miholo leyinene. U ve wun'wana wa vaxanisiwa hi mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu eAfrika Dzonga, na swona u ve a bohiwa kanarhu hikokwalaho ka ntirho wa yena wa vutsari bya mahungu.[1][2][3] Endzhaku ka loko mfumo wa Xihlawuhlawu wu herile, u ve muofisarankulu eka nhlangano wa swa vuhaxi bya Afrika Dzonga ku nga South African Broadcast Corporation.[4]

Matimu ya yena xiviri[Lulamisa | edit source]

Ndyangu wa ka Sisulu wu tiveka swinene hi xiavo xa wona xa ku lwa na mfumo wa Xihlawuhlawu eAfrika Dzonga.[5] A a ri n'wana wa nhenha yo lwa na mfumo wa Xihlawuhlawu, na xirho xa nhlangano wa African National Congress vatswari vakwe ku nga Walter Sisulu na Albertina Sisulu. A a ri makwavo wa Max Sisulu, Xipikari wa Huvo ya Palamende ya Tiko, naLindiwe Sisulu, loyi a a ri Holobye wa Vatirhela Mfumo na Vufambisi. Tatana wa yena u ve a nyiketiwa xigwevo xa ku tshama vutomi bya yena hinkwabyo ejele, lexi a nga gweviwa xona hi lembe ra 1964 loko Zwelakhe Sisulu a ri na malembe ya 13 ya vukulu.

Sisulu na nsati wa yena Zodwa va ve na vana va majaha vambirhi (2) na nhwana wun'we (1).[6]

Ntirho lowu a wu endla[Lulamisa | edit source]

Zwelakhe Sisulu u sungule ntirho wa yena wa vutsari bya mahungu ku nga journalism hi 1975 loko a sungule ku tirha tani hi mudyondzi wa ntirho eka va South African Associated Newspapers. Endzhaku ka sweswo u ve mutsari wa mahungu (journalist) eThe Rand Daily Mail laha a tsala ngopfu hi timhaka ta mpfukelo wa mfumo wa vana va xikolo wa Soweto uprising hi lembe ra 1976 na swona u tirhe kwalaho ku fikela hi lembe ra 1978. A a ri muhleri wa mahungu wa phepha ra Sunday Post (South Africa) ku fikela laha a nga pfariwa nomu (ku beniwa) hi lembe ra 1980.[2] Loko a ha tirha eSunday Post, u ve a gweviwa ku ya ejele hi ku ala ku paluxa xihlovo xa vutivi xa mahungu ya wun'wana wa vaviki va mahungu, na swona u ve murhangeri wa xitereka xa vaviki va mahungu hi lembe ra 1980 kasi xitereka lexi xi endle leswo a beniwa no siveriwa ku endla ntirho wa journalism malembe yo hlayanyana. Endzhaku ka ku va a khotsweriwe endlwini yakwe, u ve a kuma basari ya Nieman Fellow. Endzhaku ko heta fellowship hi lembe ra1985, u ve a tirhela Sowetan. Hi lembe ra 1986, u sungule nyuziphepha ya New Nation (leyi yi nga tshika ku tirha hi ti 30 Meyi 1997),[7] loko a nga si khomiwa hi maphorisa na swona a hoxeriwa ejele handle ko tengisiwa nandzu, tani hi xiyenge xa nawu wa nkarhi wolowo wo bohetela vanhu handle ko tengisiwa, lowu a wu vuriwa emergency laha ku nga khotsiwa vanhu vanyingi swinene hi mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu eAfrika Dzonga hi nkarhi wolowo. Nyuziphepha leyi a nga yi sungula, a yi fambisana swinene na nhlangano wa African National Congress, na swona eka mashead ya yona a yi ri na marito lama nge: "The media of the powerless." (Midiya ya lava va nga hava matimba). Eka nkarhi wolowo, a ku ri nyuziphepha yikulukumba ya vantima eAfrika Dzonga hi nkarhi wa kona.[8] Endzhaku ka ku ntshunxiwa ekhotswene endzhaku ka malembe mambirhi ya ku khotsiwa handle ko tengisiwa, na la ndzhaku ka loko ANC yi pfumeleriwile, Sisulu u ve a tirha ehansi ka Nelson Mandela tani hi matsalani wa mahungu wa yena, na swona u ve mudayirektara wa swa mahungu wa African National Congress.[4]

Endzhaku ka mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu eAfrika Dzonga, Sisulu u ve nhloko ya swa vuhaxi bya Afrika Dzonga ku nga South African Broadcast Corporation in 1994.[4]

Endzhaku ka ku tirha eSABC, Sisulu u sungule khampani ya New African Investments Limited, leyi yi tiviwaka tani hi bindzu ro sungula ra vantima no hlomisa vantima hi matimba leri ri nga tsarisa tani hi bindzu ra vantima eJohannesburg Stock Exchange.[9] Tin'wana ta tikhampani ehansi ka leyi a ku ri khampani ya ku phabhulixa (vukandziyisi) ya David Philip, Soweto TV na Primedia Broadcasting.[3]

Migingiriko yakwe emasungulweni[Lulamisa | edit source]

Zwelakhe Sisulu a a balansa ntirho wakwe wa journalism a mafulufulu ya ku lwa na mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu loko a ha tirha eThe Rand Daily Mail. Hi lembe ra 1977, u ve presidente ya nhlangano wa Writers' Association of South Africa. Tani hi presidente u ve a rhangela machi ya vatsari va mahungu va vantima na vatsarikulobye, kutani a va a khomiwa a ya jele xinkadyana. Muhleri wa Sisulu u n'wi holovisile hi nhlamuselo ya yena ya leswo a a tirhisa ntshunxeko wa yena wa ku tihlanganisa na vatsari van'wana. Muhleri wa yena, u n'wi byele leswo, "Ntirho wa wena a hi ku macha, kambe ku tsala."[4]

Sisulu u ve a tiviwa eka matiko ya misava ro sungula eka nandzu lowu a wu ri mayenana na ku landzeleriwa no salasariwa endzhaku ka vatsari va mahungu va vantima leswi swi endliwa hi vamfumo wa xihlawuhlawu. Loko a ri muhleri wa Sunday Post hi 1979, Sisulu u ve a tlhomiwa swivutiso hi va mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu hi xihlovo xa mahungu lexi xi nga tirhisiwa hi mutsari wa mahungu Thamsanqa Gerald Mkhwanazi. Sisulu u ve a khotsiwa ejele tin'hweti ta nkaye hi ku ala ku tirhisana na maphorisa eka mhaka leyi. Ku ve ro sungula laha maphorisa ya nga pfumela leswo ya rhekhoda tinqingho ta vatsari va mahungu exihundleni, leswi maphorisa a ya swiendla swinene hi nkarhi wolowo na swona vanhu vanyingi a va sola swinene leswo maphorisa ya endla leswi leswi.[10]

Xitereka na ku khomiwa[Lulamisa | edit source]

Zwelakhe Sisulu a a ri murhangeri wa yuniyoni ya vatirhi hi nkarhi wa xitereka xa Mwasa laha vatsari va mahungu va vantima a va terekela ku kuma miholo leyinene, hi lembe ra 1980. A ku ri xitereka xo sungula xa vatsari va mahungu va vantima. Endzhaku ka loko xitereka xi herile, u ve a lahlekeriwa hi ntirho wa yena, na swona a beniwa a nga ha pfumeleriwi ku endla ntirho wa journalism, na swona a khotseriwa endlwini ya yena laha a nga pfumeleriwi ku tihlanganisa na vanhu van'wana malembe manharu ku fikela hi lembe ra 1983. Ku khomiwa ka Zwelakhe Sisulu hi ti 30 ta Juni 1981, swi ve swi hlanganisiwa na milawu ya vusirheleleki bya xihlawuhlawu ku nga Internal Security Act. Varhangeri van'wana lava va nga khotsiwa ehansi ka milawu leyi a ku ri va Phil Mtimkhulu, Mathatha Tsedu, Subri Govende na Joe Thloloe.[2]

U ve ehansi ka basari ya Nieman Fellow ku sukela hi 1984–1985.[2]

New Nation na ku khomiwa hi 1986[Lulamisa | edit source]

Zwelakhe Sisulu u khomiwe ka mbirhi hi 1986.

Maphorisa ya n'wi khome ekaya ka yena ro sungula hi ti 27 Juni 1986. Ka ndzhaku Sisulu u ve a vula maphorisa lama tani hi "tinsulavoya leti hlomeke." Mfumo wu ve wu tivisa ku khomiwa ka yena endzhaku ku vhiki. Vanhu vanyingi va muxe ka matiko va ve va kombisa ku vilela hi ku khotsiwa ka yena no susumeta leswo u fanele a ntshunxiwa, minhlangano leyi yi nga endla xivitanelo xa ku ntshunxiwa ka yena a ku ri minhlangano yo fana na American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE). U ve a ntshunxiwa hi ti 18 ta Julayi 1986.[11][12][13][14]

Zwelakhe Sisulu a ve a langiwile tani hi mudayirektara wa Bodo ya nhlangano lowuntshwa wa ARTICLE 19 hi nkarhi wa ku khomiwa ka yena ra vumbirhi hi ti 12 ta Disemba 1986. U ve a khotsiwa handle ko tengisiwa a khotsiwa eJohn Vorster Square laha a ku pfaleriwe kona na vakhotsiwa van'wana va ku lwa na mafambiselo na mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu.[14] Nhlangano lowu wu endla xiyimo xa yena xa ku khotsiwa tani hi pfhumba ra wona ro sungula. U ve a ntshunxiwa endzhaku ka malembe mambirhi kambe lomo a ntshunxiwa a nga pfumeleriwangi ku ya emahlweni na ntirho wa yena wa vuviki bya mahungu.[8][15] Endzhaku ka malembe, u ve a vula leswo ku hangalasiwa ka mahungu ya ku khotsiwa ka yena hi va minhlangano yo fana na e ARTICLE 19 hi nkarhi lowu a khotsiwile, swi ve swi poisa vutomi bya yena .[3]

Va vuhaxi bya mahungu (SABC)[Lulamisa | edit source]

U ve mufambisi nkulu ku nga CEO wa swa vuhaxi bya Afrika Dzonga ku nga South African Broadcasting Corporation ku sukela hi Septembere 1994 ku ya eka 1997.[14] Ehansi ka vurhangeri bya Sisulu eka Afrika Dzonga ya xidimokrasi, SABC yi kunguhatiwe hi vuntshwa no vikiwa ximfumo nakambe hi ti 4 ta Februwari 1996. Ku ve na ku kwetlembetana hi ku aviwa ka swihlovo swa swipfuneto eka tindzimi tin'wana handle ka ririmi ra Xibunu (ra Afrikaans) leri a ku ri rona leri a ri kuma ku voneleriwa swinene ku tlula tindzimi tin'wana ehansi ka mfumo wa Xihlawuhlawu.[16]

Ka ndzhaku Sisulu u ve a langiwa ku va mukhomixinara ku endla vulavisisi hi ku siveriwa ka mahungu man'wana, ku nga censorship eSABC, leswi swi nga vikiwa hi ndlela ya xihundla hi John Perlman.[17]

Masagwati[Lulamisa | edit source]

Sisulu u ve a nyikiwa awadi ya Order of Mapungubwe - Gold, endzhaku ka ku lova ka yena hi posthumously for "ntirho wa yena wo hlamarisa swonghasi na ndzima leyi a nga yi tlanga eka khwaliti ya vuviki bya mahungu no humesela erivaleni tihanyi ta mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu xikan'we na ku khutaza vun'we bya vanhu va mianakanyo yo hambana hi swa tipolitiki leswo va lwela ntshunxeko.")[18]

Minkhwekelo ya le handle ka Wikipediya[Lulamisa | edit source]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Lewis, Anthony (14 April 1987). "Abroad at Home: To Destroy a Country". New York Times. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Thloloe, Joe (7 October 2012). "Zwelakhe Sisulu: leader black media could trust, 1950 – 2012". Sunday Times (South Africa). 
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Sisulu, Zwelakhe (11 December 2008). "Statement by Zwelakhe Sisulu on the Occasion of the 20th Anniversary of the Founding of ARTICLE 19" (speech). ARTICLE 19. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Gevisser, Mark (16 February 1996). "South Africa SA's Most Powerful Media Boss". The Mail & Guardian (Africa News). 
  5. Carlin, John (1989-10-12). "A family to make Pretoria tremble: Walter Sisulu will leave his cell to join a wife and son who have themselves been restricted". The Independent. 
  6. Savides, Matthew (14 October 2012). "Struggle icons bury Sisulu". Sunday Times (South Africa). 
  7. African National Congress of South Africa (3 June 1997). "South Africa: ANC Marks the Last Edition Of New Nation". AllAfrica. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 Brittain, Victoria (7 December 1989). "Editor says black South African paper is threatened with closure". The Guardian (UK). 
  9. Sapa and Mkhulu Mashau (14 October 2012). "Zwelakhe Sisulu laid to rest – South Africa | IOL News". IOL.co.za. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  10. Murphy, Caryle (12 August 1979). "S. Africa Increasingly Restricts Press". Washington Post. 
  11. "Black editor abducted / Zwelakhe Sisulu in South Africa". The Guardian (UK). 28 June 1986. 
  12. Associated Press (29 June 1986). "U.S. Editors' Society Urges Pretoria to Free a Journalist". New York Times. 
  13. "Minister frees detained editor / New Nation newspaper editor Sisulu released by South African authorities". The Guardian (UK). 19 July 1986. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Hultman, Tami (5 October 2012). "South Africa: Zwelakhe Sisulu – a Remembrance". AllAfrica. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  15. Findley, Timothy (21 March 1987). "Writing: the pain and the pleasure The power to persuade is mitigated wherever you turn". Toronto Star. 
  16. Golding-Duffy, Jacquie; Pearce, Justin (19 January 1996). "South Africa Is TV Relaunching ... Or Re-sinking?". Mail and Guardian (Johannesburg). 
  17. Haffajee, Ferial (13 October 2006). "Inside the SABC blacklist report". Mail & Guardian. Retrieved 2013-01-28. 
  18. "President Jacob Zuma bestows 2016 National Orders Awards, 28 Apr". South African Government. 20 April 2016. Retrieved 8 May 2016.