Thekinoloji

Kusuka e Wikipedia
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
Mphehlo wagezi hikutirhisa njhini ya ripomelo rohisa. Nkavelo wagezi wufambisana ngopfu na kuhluvuka ka mahanyele ya vanhu.[1] Mphehlo wagezi wu hlawuriwe tanihi xihluvukisi lexihlawulekeke eka lembexidzana ravukhume-mbirhi.[2]

Thekinoloji ("Ntivovuthlarhi hita kuvumba", risuka eka viti ra Xigriki τέχνη, techne, "Vupfapfarhuti kumbe Vutshila"; kuhlanganisa na -λογία, -logia[3]) i nhlengelo wa vutshila, vuswikoti na maendlele yo tumbuluxa switirhisiwa kumbe vukorhokeri kumbe kuhetisisa vukambisisi bya Sayensi. Thekinoloji yinga thlela yi hlamuseriwa tanihi vutivi bya maendlelo ya mintirho.

Kutirhisiwa ka thekinoloji kusungule hi kutumbuluxa switirhisiwa swo tirha hiswona kusukela eka mbango. Kusukela eku dyondzeni tindlela to tirhisa ndzilo, kurima na tindlela to vevukisa maendzo hikutirhisa vilwa. Kuhluvuka ka manguva lawa kuhlanganisa kuganglisa ka tibuku, tinqingo na inthaneti, swi vevukise tindlela to vulavurisana namabulu. Kuhluvuka ka malwelo yatinyipi, namathlarhi switise kuonha lokukulu lokuvangeriwaka hi mathlarhi yanyutliya.

Thekinoloji yithlele yupfuna kuhluvukisa tamabindzu yamisava naku kurisa rifuwo. Hambiswiritano swin'wana switandzhaku swo biha naswona leswi onhaka mbangu.

Matimu[Lulamisa | edit source]

Ekusunguleni: 2.5 miliyoni – 10,000 BC[Lulamisa | edit source]

Vanhu vakhale vatidyondzise Vutivi byovumba mathulusi yo tirha hiwona, katsongo katsongo hikuya hi swilaveko swavutomi. Kutshembiwa leswaku kuvumba ririmi na mbalavuriswano hi yona thekinoloji yosungula.[4]

Mathulusi ya maribye[Lulamisa | edit source]

Xihloka xosungula

Vanhu vakhale vasungule kulota maribye leswaku vakota kuvumba mathulusi yofana na bewula, swikomu na mathlarhi yohlota. Kwalomu ka malembe ya 40,000 lamahundzeke, vanhu vasungule malotele yo vevuka leswaku vavumba mathulusi yo antswa.

Ndzilo[Lulamisa | edit source]

Matirhisele ya ndzilo macince maendlelo ya swilo swonghasi.[5]  Kutshembiwa leswaku vanhu vasungule kutirhisa ndzilo kwalomu ka 1,000,000 BC;[6] vativi vatidyondzo vatwanana leswaku vanhu vakhale vangava vasungule kutirhisa ndzilo kwalomu ka 500,000 BC na 400,000 BC.[7][8] Ndzilo watihunyi namakhala, swipfune vanhu kusweka swakudya leswaku va antswisa magayelo yaswona naswona vaengetela swimilana na tinyama leti dyekaka.[9]

Swiambalo na Tiyindlu[Lulamisa | edit source]

Vutivi na vutshila byo endla swiambalo, ithekinoloji leyi landzeleke. Tiyindlu tavanhu vakhale tisungule kuantswisiwa naswona kwalomu ka malembe ya 380,000 BC, vanhu vakhale vasungule ku aka tiyindlu hitimhadzi.[10][11] Swiambalo swa swikhumba swa swiharhi swipfune vanhu leswaku va ya aka etindzawini totitimela, hiswona leswivangeleke leswaku vanhu vasungula ku valanga vahangalaka na tiko nkulu ro Afrika kwalomu ka malembe ya 200,000 BC.[12]

Malembe ya lexikarhi: 10,000 BC – 300 AD[Lulamisa | edit source]

Mathulusi ya maribye lamachukuchiweke kuhlanganisa na vuhlalu, swihloka na machizele yo boxa.

Thekinoloji yavanhu yisungule kuhluvuka no antswa swoghasi eka malembe yohetelela yakhale kuta haleno ka nguva leyitolovelekeke (Ano Domini). Kutirhisiwa ka mathulusi yamaribye lamachukuchuweke, swipfune vanhu leswaku vaendla mathulusi lama lotiweke kahle leswaku makota kutsema kahle. Swihloka swamaribye leswi chukuchiweke swi endle leswaku vanhu vakota to tsema misinya leyikulu no endla swirhapa swo rima. Vurimi byi cince mahanyele no antswisa vutomi bya vanhu swonghasi. Vurimi byi endle swikoteka to hlengeleta vanhu endzawini leyitsonga naswona vakota ku tihanyisa hiswakudya leswi vaswirimaka.[13][14]

Mathulisi yansimbhi[Lulamisa | edit source]

Kuantswisiwa kaxihiso, swi tswale vutshila byo tirha hitinsimbhi.[15] Nsuku, Koporo, nasiliva itinsimbhi leti vatihiseleke leswaku va endla mathulusi lamatiyeke no karhiha swinene.

Matimba yotirha na Vutleketli[Lulamisa | edit source]

Vilwa ritumbuluxiwe kwalomu ka lembe ra 4000 BC.

Kutumbuluxiwa ka vilwa ku tise ku cinca loku kulu eka mahanyelo na vutomi bya vanhu. Aswitekanga nkarhi kutsumbula leswaku vilwa ringa pfuna ku endla golonyi leyinga tithisiwaka kurhwala swilo leswitikaka na kulwa tinyimpi. Thlandla kambirhi vilwa risungule kutirhisiwa kuphehla matimba kusuka eka matimba ya mati kuya eka matimba ya moya.

Mangula lawa: 300 AD – Kufika namunthla[Lulamisa | edit source]

Golonyi yosungula yi antswisa ndlela yamaendzo.

Thekinoloji yamanhuva lawa yihluvuke swonghasi loko hi ringanisa na tithekinoloji ta vanhu vakhale. Kutumbuluxiwa ka swilo leswi fanaka na bandhi ra hanci, swifambo swa timbongolo naswin'wana swi antswise ndlela yotleketla vanhu na mpahla. Kutumbuluxiwa ka swipirhi, swipanera, mabharha yo susumeta na tiwachi naswona swi antswise vutomi na mahanyele. Nhluvuko wa thekinoloji wu endla leswaku swakudya na swa mabindzi swi olova ku tleketliwa no xavisiwa hi kuolova.

Kusukela hi lembe-xidzana ra 18, kupfuriwa katinkomponi kupfune no hlohlotela kuantswisiwa ka tithekinoloji to tala,  ngopfungopfu eka vurimi, vuaki, timayini, swiceriwa na vutleketli. Thekinoloji yitlele yi antswisiwa hiku tsumburiwa ka kuphehla gezi leswaku kuvumbiwa motoro, malambhu yagezi naswina swohambana-hambana. Kuhluvuka ka vutivi bya Sayensi kutise nhluvuko wa swihaha-mpfuka, vutshunguri, tikhemikhali kuhlanganisa na vunjiniyeri. nhluvuko wa thekinoloji wu tise miako yo leha leswi endleke leswaku vanhu vakuma tindzawu to tshama. Tindlela to vulaula namabulo swi antswisiwe ngopfu hi kufika ka thelegrafi, riqingo, xiyanimoya na thelevixini. Lembe-xidzana ra vu 19 nakusungula ka ravu 20, kutsumburiwe tindlela to antswisa vutleketli hi kutirhisa swihaha-mphfuka na timovha.

Minkombo ya tluka[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Committee on Electricity in Economic Growth Energy Engineering Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council (1986).
  2. Constable, George; Somerville, Bob (2003).
  3. Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980).
  4. Wade, Nicholas (15 July 2003).
  5. Crump, Thomas (2001).
  6. "Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs".
  7. "History of Stone Age Man".
  8. James, Steven R. (February 1989).
  9. Stahl, Ann B. (1984).
  10. O'Neil, Dennis.
  11. Villa, Paola (1983).
  12. Cordaux, Richard; Stoneking, Mark (2003).
  13. "The First Baby Boom: Skeletal Evidence Shows Abrupt Worldwide Increase In Birth Rate During Neolithic Period".
  14. Sussman, Robert W.; Hall, Roberta L. (April 1972).
  15. Cramb, Alan W. "A Short History of Metals".