Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela-2008 (edit).jpg
Xirho xa Huvo ya rixaka


10. Murhangeri wa tiko ra Afrika Dzonga

Mudyaxihi 10, 1994 - Khotavuxika 14, 1999
F. W. de Klerk - Thabo Mbeki
19. Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement

Ndzhati 2, 1998 - 1999
Andrés Pastrana Arango - Thabo Mbeki
Vutomi
Vito Rolihlahla Mandela
Ndzhawu yovelekiwa Muganga wa Mvezo, Mawuwani 18, 1918
Tiko ra vutshami Afrika-Dzonga
Kaya rakwe Houghton Estate
Ririmi rantumbuluko Xhosa
Ndzhawu yo kulova Houghton Estate, N'wendzamhala 5, 2013
Afrika-Dzonga
Manner of death  (Respiratory system disease)
Ndyangu
Tata wakwe Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa
Mana wakwe Nosekeni Fanny
Nghamu Evhelina Mase  (Nhlangula 5, 1944 -  Nyenyankulu 19, 1957)
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela  (Khotavuxika 14, 1958 -  Nyenyankulu 19, 1996)
Graca Mashele  (Mawuwani 18, 1998 -  N'wendzamhala 5, 2013)
N'wana
Education
Uleteriwe e Yunivhesithi ya Vhetsi
Yunivhesithi ya Afrika Dzonga Bachelor of Arts
Yunivhesithi ya Forthare
University of London
Tindzimi leti a a titiva, kutsala na kuvulavula English
Xhosa
Ntirho
Ntirho N'wa politiki, autobiographer, lawyer nakambe political activist
Masagwati lama kumiweke
Xirho xa nhlangano wa American Academy of Arts and Sciences
Vupfumeri
Vukhongeri Methodism
Xirho xa nhlangano wa politiki African National Congress
IMDb nm0541691
www.nelsonmandela.org/
Nelson Mandela Signature.svg

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela(IPA[xolíɬaɬa mandéːla]; loyi a tswariweke hi 18 Mawuwani 1918) i khale ka Presidenti ya Afrika Dzonga, i wo sungula ku hlawuriwa eka nhlawulo wa xidemokirasi lowu yimeleka vanhu hinkwavo. Loko nga si hlawuriwa , Mandela a a lwisana na mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu(apartheid) tanihi murhangeri wa African National Congress na vuthu ra nyimpi leri tiviweke hi ra Umkhonto we Sizwe. U hete 27 wa malembe ekhotsweni, yo tala ya wona eXihlaleni xa Robben, ehenhla ko voniwa milandzu leyi hlanganisaka ku kavanyeta matirhele ya mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu.

Exikarhi ka lava a va lwisana na mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu eAfrika-Dzonga na le misaveni hinkwayo, u vile mfungo wa ntshuxeko na ringana ka vanhu, hala tlhelo mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu na matiko lawa a ma wu seketela va nwi voneke yena na ANC tanihi mukhomanisi na mutherorisi.

Endzhaku ko tshunxiwa ekhotsweni hi 11 Nyenyenyani 1990, ku cinca ka yena eku tirhiseni ndlela yo vuyelelana na burisana swi pfune ku hundzula Afrika-Dzonga leswaku yi va tiko ra tinxaka to hambanahambana. Ku sukela loko mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu wu herile, u bumabumeriwe ngopfu hi vanhu vo tala, ku hlanganisa na valala vakwe va nkarhi lowu hundzeke.

Mandela u amukele masagwadi lama tlulaka dzana endzeni ka makume-mune wa malembe, leyi tivekaka ngopfu eka tona i mbuyelo wa kurhula wa Nobel (Nobel Peace Prize) hi lembe ra 1993. Enkarhini wa sweswi u tlangeriwa tanihi mufumi loyi a dyuhaleke loyi a ha riki na rito etimhakeni to tala. EAfrika-Dzonga u tiveka ngopfu hi ra Madiba, Vito ro hlawuleka leri nyikiwaka vakulu/tihosi ta rixaka ra va ka Mandela. Vito leri ri sungule ku tirhisiwa ngopfu ku vulavula hi Nelson Mandela.

Mandela u kombe Mahatma Gandhi tanihi munhu loyi a veke na nhlohlotelo ngopfu evutonwini bya yena, hi ta Filosofi ya ku tirhisa kurhula no langutana na vuxanisi hi ndlela leyi xiximekaka.

Malembe ya vutomi yo vunthswa bya yena[Lulamisa | edit source]

Kutswariwa na rixaka[Lulamisa | edit source]

Nelson Mandela hi 1939[1]

Mandela uvelekiwa eka ri xaka ra vaThembu leri (hintolovelo) fumeka e migangeni ya Transkayi e hansi ka Phurovinci ya Kapa e ka nhlangano wa Afrika Dzonga. U bebuleriwe eka muganga lowu tsonga wa Mvezo e xifundzeni xa Umtata, Nstindza wa Transkayi. Kokwa wa yena akuri Ngubengcuka (Loyi a lovekeka hi lembe ra 1832), Hosi-leyi fumaka ya vaThembu, lava eku heteleleni va hluriweke mfumo wa vukolonyi wa manghezi. Unwe wa majaha ya hosi, leyi a yi tiviwa hi ra Mandela, u ve kokwana wa Nelson, loyi a veke xihlovo xa Xivongo. Leswi a veke nwana wa hosi hi nsati wa le ximatsini wa rixaka ra vaka Ixhiba, Swi hluke swa rhavi ra yena a swi nga faneleki ku teka vuhosi bya vaThembu. Tata wa kwe, Gadla Henry Mphakanyiswa (1880–1928), hambiswiritano u vekiwile tani hi ndhuna ya ximutana xa Mvezo. Endzaku ko papalata mfumo wa vukolonyi, u tekeriwe mfumo naswona a rhurisiwa aya e Qunu na muti wakwe. Hambiswiritano, Gadla a a hari unwana wa vandla ra hosi, naswona u hoxe xandla eku vekiweni ka Jongintaba Dalindyebo e vuhosini bya vaThembu, loyi a nwi hakeleke hi ku teka Mandela ehansi ka timpapa takwe, endzaku ka rifu ra Gadla. Tata wa Mandela a a ri na vasati va mune, lava va nwi velekeleke vana va khume-nharhu(mjaha ya mune na tintombhi ta nkaye). Mandela u tswariwe hi nsati wa wa vunharhu wa Gadla ('Wa vunharhu' hi kuya hi mpimo wa rixaka ra vuhosi), Nosekeni Fanny, nwana wa nhwana wa Nkedama loyi a a ri wa vaMpemvu va rixaka ra ma Xhosa, Yindlu ya xinene, laha Mandela a kuleleke e ximutanini xa kona.[2] Vito ro nyikiwa ra yena Rolihlahla ri vula leswaku "kukoka rhavi ra murhi", kumbe hi laha kutolovelekeke, "nwa-timholova".[3]


Dyondzo[Lulamisa | edit source]

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Mandela 1996, pp. 16, 17
  2. Mandela, Nelson (2006). Mandela: The Authorized Portrait. ISBN 0-7407-5572-2. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  3. Mandela 1996, p. 7.