Nelson Mandela

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Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (/mænˈdɛlə//mænˈdɛlə/;[1] 18 mawuwani 1918 – 5 n'wenzamhala 2013) ari mu Afirika-Dzonga, mulwisi wa xihlawuhlawu, n'wa ti politiki, na kuva xirhandzwa, utirhe tani hi Puresidente (murhangeri/ nhloko)  wa tiko ra  Afirika-Dzonga ku sukela hi lembe ra 1994 to 1999. a ri wa ntimeni wo sungula kuva murhangeri wa tiko ra afirika-dzonga, naswona a hlawuriwile hi swa nawu. Mfumu wa yena awuti nyiketile ekulwa na xihlawuhlawu, ku zhondana ka swa rixaka na ku hlanganisa tiko. ari muhlanganisi wa ma afirika, naswona ari murhangeri wa vandla ra tipolotiki ra ANC kusukela 1991 kufikla 1997. 

Ari mu-Xhosa, Mandela utswariwe eMvezo evukosini bya va. u dyondzerile kuva muyimeri eUniversity ya Fort Hare na le University ya le Witwatersrand anga si kuma ntirho wa vuyimeri/ vuqhwetha eJohannesburg (joni). la usungule eku lwa na mabunu  naswona ari eka African nationalist politics, ujoyinile vandla ra ANC hi 1943 a tlhela a pfuna ku endla vandla ra vantshwa ra ANCYL Youth League hi 1944. endzhaku ka loko vandla ra National Party's ra mfumo wa valungu ntsena ri sungurile xihlawuhlawu/ apartheid—ku hambanisa va ntimeni no rhangisa emahlweni emabunu na va lungu —yena na vandla ra ANC va tibyerile ku lwisa mfumu. Mandela uhlawuriwile ekuva murhangeri wa vandla ra  ANC eka tiko-kaya ra Transvaal , a kulela kulwa hi 1952 eka Defiance Campaign nahi 1955 Congress of the People. u khomiwe ko tala nyana hi mintirho yolwa na mfumo naswona anga voniwanga nandzu hi va 1956 Treason Trial. a cheriwile moya hi Marxism, u joyinile vandla ra South African Communist Party (SACP) leri ari nga pfumeleriwanga. hambi leswi anga lavi ku macha hi nyimpi , xikanwe na SACP va endlile vandla ra xinyimpi ra  Umkhonto we Sizwe hi lembe ra 1961 a tlhela a rhangela mavandla yo onhela mfumo. hi lembe ra 1962, u khomiwile mayelana no wutla mfumo swingari e nawini, a ghweviwa vutomi hinkwabyo ekhotsweni hi Rivonia Trial.

Mandela ukhomiwile malembe ya 27, eRobben Island, na le Pollsmoor Prison na Victor Verster Prison. ku pfuka tinyimpi ta mazholonga, na moya wo cheriwa hi va matiko mambe (international pressure), no chava nyimpi ya xin'wana manana, Puresidente F. W. de Klerk u n'wi humesi ekhotsweni 1990. Mandela na de Klerk va burisane ku herisa xihlawuhlawu hi lembe ra 1994  no vhota ka tinxaka hinkwato multiracial general election  Mandela u winilena vandla ra ANC a va murhangeri wa tiko. a rhangela broad coalition government leyi yi nga vumba vumbiwa ra rixaka  new constitution, Mandela a kondlotela rixaka ku rivalelana no tumbuluxa Truth and Reconciliation Commission  ku lavisisa ku tshiviwa ka timfanelo ta vanhu nkarhi lowu hundzeke. swa timali, mfumo wa Mandela utirhe kahle ngopfu ku tlula mfumo wa xihlawuhlawu  liberal framework hambi leswi a nga tshembi, ute na tindlela ta ku tlheriseriwa ka misava ekava ntimeni land reform, a lwa na vusweti, no kurisa timhaka ta swa rihanyo healthcare services. misava hinkwayo, ari mulamuli wa Pan Am Flight 103 bombing trial naswona atirha tani hi  matsalani nkulu wa Non-Aligned Movement kusuka hi 1998 to 1999. u arile ku yimela xitulu xa vurhangeri ravumbirhi naswo hi lembe ra 1999 u siviwile hi xandla xa yena, Thabo Mbeki. Mandela xirhandzwa xa tiko naswona a langutile kulwa na vusiwana mavabyi ya HIV/AIDS  hi tintswalo na ntwela vusiwa ya Nelson Mandela Foundation.

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Footnotes[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. "Mandela". Collins English Dictionary. Archived from the original on 5 April 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2013.