Ndzhavuko

Kusuka e Wikipedia
(Ritlerisewe kusuka e Culture)
Tlulela eka: Xikomba-ndlela, Lava
ncino wa machangana ma tsonga.
Vukhongeri na vuvatli iswilo swa nkoka eka ndhzavuko wa vanhu.

Ndzhavuko (kusuka ekaXilatini cultura ri tekiwa e ka colere, leswi vulaka "ku hlakulela")[1] hi ku angarha ri hlamusela maendlele ya swilo ya vanhu na nkonka wa swiendlo sweleswo. Mindzhavuko yinga twisisiwa ta ni hi "nhlengelo wa mimfungo na tinhlamuselo ta mafambisele ya swilo kumbe swi enldo leswi tolovelekeke"[2]

Ndzhavuko wu nga ha hlamuseriwa tanihi ndlela ya vutomi kuhlanganisa vuqambhi, kupfumela na tindzhawu ta vuleteri ta rixaka kunga swilo leswi hundziseriwaka kusuka eka xitukulwana na xitukulwana. Ndzhavuko wu vuriwa "Ndlela ya vutomi ya vanhu hi xitalo."[3] tanihileswi sweleswo swi hlanganisaka matikhomele, swi ambalo, ririmi, vukhongeri, swi henwa, na mikhuva leyi tolovelekeke.

Masungulo ya Ndzhavuko[Lulamisa | edit source]

Matirhiselo ya masiku lawa ya riviti "ndzhavuko" matshegeriwe eka riviti leri ari tirhisiwa hi Murhoma wa Khale kunga Cicero eka matsalwa ya yena lamange Tusculanae Disputationes, laha atsaleke hi ku hlakulela muya-xiviri kumbe "cultura animi",[4] hi kutirhisa xifananisi xa Vurimi leswaku a hlamusela ku akeka ka moya-xiviri hi nhlamusela ya filosofi, naswona u twisese leswaku ndhzavuko inhluvuko wa le henhla wa vanhu. Samuel Pufendorf uyise xifananisi lexi emahlweni a xitirhisa e mahanyelweni ya namunthla, laha mongo wa nhlamusela wa yena hi ta ndzhavuko wuyelanaka, kambe wunga ha xongeteli leswaku Filosofi iku helela ka munhu ka ntumbuluko. Matirhisele ya yena na ya lava vateke endzhaku ka yena "makombetela eka tindlela hinkwato leti vanhu va koteke ha tona ku hluvuka eka mahanyele ya khale ya vuharhi, ivi vatirhisa vuthlarhi bya vona leswaku vava vanhu hikuhelela".[5]

N'wa ta Filosofi Edward S. Casey (1996) wahlamusela: "Rito ndzhavuko rivula "ndzhawu leyi hlakuriweke" hikuya hi xinghezi xale xikarhi, naswona rito leri rikumeka nale ka xiLatini colere, "kutikhoma, kukhatalela, kuhlakula, kugandzela" na cultus, "ntsombano, ngopfungopfu wa vukhongeri." Kulandza ndzhavuko, iku teka vundhzawu lebyi hlohloteriwaka ngopfu hi ndhzavuko leswaku uwu khatalela — ubyarha vutihlamuleri hi wona naswona uwu khatalela hahombe."[6]

Velkley uhlamusela Ndzhavuko, aku:

... ekusunguleni awu hlamusela kuhlakulela moya-xiviri kumbe miehleketo, kambe wu kume hlamuselo wa sweswi eka matsalwa ya lembe-xidzana ra khume-nhungu (18) ya vatsari va ma Jarimani, lava ava xopaxopa matsalwa ya Rousseau lawa ama sola "ximanje-manje vutshunxeki na malembe ya rivoningo". Hiswona leswi vangelaka kuhambana exikarhi ka "ndhzavuko" na "nhluvuko", na hambiloko kuhambana loku kunga hlamuseriwi hi kukongoma.

Mintshaho[Lulamisa | edit source]

  1. Harper, Douglas (2001). Online Etymology Dictionary.
  2. Findley, Carther Vaughn and John Alexander Rothney (2006). Twentieth-century World. Sixth edition, p. 14. ISBN 978-0-618-52263-7.
  3. Williams, Raymond. Keywords, "Culture"
  4. Cicero, Marcus Tullius (45 BC). Tusculanes (Tusculan Disputations). pp. II, 15. 
  5. Velkley, Richard (2002). "The Tension in the Beautiful: On Culture and Civilization in Rousseau and German Philosophy". Being after Rousseau: Philosophy and Culture in Question. The University of Chicago Press. pp. 11–30. 
  6. https://read.amazon.com/?asin=B00DG8M7EU --October 2014